Genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia in patients admitted to Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape Province, South Africa

Salaam-Dreyer, Zubeida (2010-03)

Thesis (MScMedSc (Pathology. Medical Microbiology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: S. aureus causes serious infections in the hospital and community settings. The rate of MRSA infections are rapidly increasing worldwide. Currently, at Tygerberg hospital, approximately a third of S. aureus isolates are MRSA. This was the first epidemiological study of S. aureus conducted at Tygerberg Hospital that included prospective clinical data on patients with S. aureus bacteraemia together with spa typing of strains and the detection of the mecA and pvl genes in a multiplex PCR. Clonal cluster groups of S. aureus isolates were obtained by BURP analysis and compared to international important clones. The molecular epidemiology of hospital acquired (HA), health-care associated (HCA) and community acquired (CA) S. aureus bacteraemic strains at this hospital was examined. Lastly, repeat isolates of patients were collected to analyse any possible organism-related factors associated with persistent and recurrent bacteraemia. We investigated a total number of 113 S. aureus strains from 104 patients (70% MSSA, 30% MRSA). Repeat strains consisted of nine isolates (from 5 patients). All isolates were obtained from blood cultures collected during the period March 2008 to May 2009. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of methicillin resistance correlated well. According to the literature, most CA-MRSA strains are distinguishable from HA-MRSA strains based upon the presence of the PVL toxin. However, no CA-MRSA was detected in our study, therefore the association between HA-MRSA versus CA-MRSA strains could not be analysed. In this study, CA-MSSA was identified in 22% of all MSSA isolates versus 0% CA-MRSA. PVL positive strains were found in 22.7% of all MSSA isolates with no detection in MRSA isolates. It was noted that MRSA strains clustered in spa CC-701 and CC-012, whereas CC-002 only contained MSSA strains. Likewise HA-strains representing the majority of MRSA strains also clustered in spa CC-701 and CC-012. Forty nine spa types were identified in 89.3% of all isolates, whereas 9.7% of these strains were non-typeable. Five novel spa types were revealed. We detected a diverse number of spa-types that correlated to international clones. The most predominant spa type found in our setting was t037 (only in MRSA), followed by t891. According to the literature, t037 is associated to the Brazilian/Hungarian clone (SCCmec type III; ST 239). Our findings, as well as other South African studies, indicate that t037 has been identified in clinical strains from numerous provinces in South Africa. Interestingly, all isolates from spa type t891 were PVL positive MSSA. Bacteraemia cases were predominantly related to catheter sepsis, followed by skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). Only one persistent bacteraemia case was identified related to a HA-SSTI. Recurrent bacteraemia cases were found in patients on dialysis for chronic renal failure and in burns patients related to intravascular catheter infections. The local epidemiology of S. aureus and the prevalence rate of different strains are important to investigate. The information provided contributes to the epidemiology of staphylococcal strains causing bacteraemia in our setting. These insights are useful for optimal diagnostic and therapeutic measures. The techniques developed can be used to identify outbreaks and recurrent infections.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: S. aureus veroorsaak ernstige infeksies in die hospitaalomgewing en in die gemeenskap. Wêreldwyd, neem metisillien-weerstandige S. aureus (MRSA) infeksies vinnig toe. Huidiglik by Tygerberg hospitaal is ongeveer ‘n derde van S. aureus isolate MRSA. Hierdie is die eerste epidemiologiese studie by Tygerberg hospitaal wat prospektiewe kliniese data van pasiënte met S. aureus bakteremie saam met spa tipering en aantoning van die mecA en pvl gene in ‘n multipleks PKR insluit. Klonale groepe (spa-CC) van MRSA en MSSA isolate is deur BURP analise verkry, en vergelyk met internasionaal belangrike klone. Die molekulêre epidemiologie van hospitaalverworwe (HA), gesondheidsorgverworwe (HCA) en gemeenskapsverworwe (CA) S. aureus bakteremie by hierdie hospitaal is ondersoek. Laastens, oorspronklike en daaropvolgende herhaal isolate is gekollekteer om moontlike organisme- faktore geassosieerd met persisterende en herhalende bakteremiese episodes te analiseer. Ons het in totaal 113 S. aureus isolate van 104 pasiënte ondersoek (70% MSSA, 30% MRSA). Nege isolate (van 5 pasiënte) was herhaal isolate. Alle isolate was afkomstig vanaf bloedkulture wat gedurende die periode Maart 2008 tot Mei 2009 gekollekteer is. Fenotipiese en genotipiese aantoning van metisillien weerstandigheid het goed gekorreleer. Volgens die literatuur kan die meeste CA-MRSA isolate van HA-MRSA isolate onderskei word op grond van die teenwoordigheid van die PVL toksien. Geen CA-MRSA is egter in ons studie gevind nie, dus kon die assosiasie tussen HA-MRSA en CA-MRSA isolate nie ondersoek word nie. CA-MSSA was in 22% van alle MSSA geidentifiseer teenoor 0% CA-MRSA. PVL is in MSSA isolate gevind (22.7% van alle MSSA) maar glad nie in MRSA nie. Dit is opgemerk dat MRSA isolate hoofsaaklik in spa CC 701 en CC-012 kloongroepe voorkom, teenoor kloongroep CC-002 wat slegs MSSA isolate bevat het. Soortgelyk het HA-isolate wat die meerderheid van MRSA isolate verteenwoordig het ook in kloongroepe 1 & 2 gegroepeer. Nege-en-veertig spa tipes is geïdentifiseer in 89.3% of alle isolate en 9.7% was nie-tipeerbaar. Vyf nuwe spa tipes is getoon. Ons het ‘n diverse aantal spa-tipes geïdentifiseer wat met internasionale klone gekorreleer het. Die mees dominante spa tipe in ons omgewing was t037 (slegs in MRSA), gevolg deur t891. Volgens die literatuur word t037 met die Brasiliaanse/Hongaarse kloon geassosieer (SCCmec tipe III; ST 239). Ons bevindings, asook ander Suid Afrikaanse studies, dui aan dat t037 in kliniese isolate vanaf talle provinsies in Suid-Afrika aangetoon is. Van belang is dat al die isolate van spa tipe t891 MSSA en PVL positief was. Bakteremiese gevalle was hoofsaaklik geassosieer met kateter-sepsis, gevolg deur vel en sagteweefsel infeksies (SSTI). Slegs een persisterende bakteremiese geval was geïdentifiseer geassosieer met HA-SSTI. Herhalende bakteremiese episodes is in pasiënte op dialise vir kroniese nierversaking en in brandwonde pasiënte met intra-vaskulêre kateter infeksies aangetoon. Die lokale epidemiologie van S. aureus en die prevalensie koers van verskillende stamme is van belang. Hierdie inligting dra by tot kennis van die epidemiologie van stafilokokkale stamme wat in ons omgewing bakteremie veroorsaak. Hierdie insigte is nuttig vir optimale diagnostiese en terapeutiese riglyne. Die tegnieke wat ontwikkel is, kan gebruik word om uitbrake en herhalende infeksies te identifiseer.

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