Expression of mannanases in fermentative yeasts.

Fouche, Nicolette (2009-03)

Thesis (MSc (Microbiology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The search for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly replacement for fossil fuels resulted in bio-ethanol production receiving a lot of attention. Lignocellulose, is considered to be the most abundant renewable source on earth, and consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Exploitation thereof as a substrate for ethanol production, can serve as solution in producing bio-ethanol as an adequate replacement for fossil fuels. Hemicelluloses, contributing up to a third of the lignocellulosic substrate, consists mainly of xylan and mannan and can be degraded by hemicellulolytic enzymes that are produced by plant cell wall degrading organisms. Galactoglucomannan is the most complex form of mannan and requires a consortium of enzymes for complete hydrolysis. These enzymes include β-mannanase, β-mannosidase, α-galactosidase, β-glucosidase and galactomannan acetylesterases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-known fermentative organism that has been used in various industrial processes and is able to produce ethanol from hexose sugars. Although this organism is unable to utilize complex lignocellulosic structures, DNA manipulation techniques and recombinant technology can be implemented to overcome this obstacle. Strains of S. cerevisiae pose other shortcomings like hyperglycosylation and therefore other non-conventional yeasts (such as Kluyveromyces lactis) are now also being considered for heterologous protein production. The mannanase gene (manI) of Aspergillus aculeatus was expressed in K. lactis GG799 and S. cerevisiae Y294. K. lactis transformants were stable for two weeks in consecutive subcultures and secreted a Man1 of 55 kDa. The recombinant Man1 displayed an optimum temperature of 70°C and a pH optimum of 5 when produced by K. lactis. Activity levels of about 160 – 180 nkat/ml was obtained after 86 hours of cultivation, which was similar to the activity observed with S. cerevisiae under the same conditions. Disruption of the ku80 gene did not contribute to the stability of the cultures and a heterogeneous culture developed for 10 days of consecutive subculturing. The mannosidase gene (man1) from A. niger and mannanase gene (manI) from A. aculeatus were constitutively expressed in S. cerevisiae Y294 and S. cerevisiae NI-C-D4. The MndA and Man1 proteins appeared as a 140 kDa and 58 kDa species on the SDS-PAGE analysis when expressed in S. cerevisiae Y294, respectively. MndA had an optimum temperature of 50°C and optimum pH 5. Man1 produced by S. cerevisiae Y294 indicated a pH optimum of 6 and temperature optimum of 70°C. The MndA displayed low levels of endomannanase activity and no β-mannosidase activity could be detected. Co-expression of man1 and mndA in either S. cerevisiae Y294 and S. cerevisiae NI-C-D4, resulted in less hydrolysis of galactoglucomannan. An increase in the size of the plasmid generally results in a decrease in the copy number, leading to a decrease in the amount of ManI protein being produced. The co-expression of ManI and MndA could also have resulted in a higher metabolic burden on the cell, hence the amount of ManI are produced. This study confirms that more research should be done on the evaluation of alternative hosts for expression of foreign proteins. Furthermore, producing enzymes cocktails for industrial application should be considered rather than co-expression of various enzymes in one host.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Behoefte na ‘n koste-effektiewe en omgewingsvriendelike vervoer brandstof is besig om toe te neem. Lignosellulose word beskou as die volopste hernubare bron vir biobrandstof en lignosellulose bestaan uit sellulose, hemisellulose en lignien. Die gebruik daarvan vir die produksie van bio-etanol kan ’n voldoende alternatief vir fossielbrandstowwe bied. Verbruik van lignosellulose as bron vir die produksie van biobrandstof bied ’n oplossing vir die energie krises. Hemisellulose vorm ’n derde van lignosellulose substraat en bestaan uit xilaan en mannaan en word deur hemisellolitiese ensieme afgebreek wat algemeen by plantselwand-verterende organismes voorkom. Galaktoglukomannaan is die mees komplekse vorm van mannaan en benodig verskeie ensieme vir volkome hidroliese. Hierdie ensieme sluit in β-mannanase, β-mannosidase, α-galaktosidase, β-glukosidase en galaktomanaan asetielesterases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is ‘n bekende fermenterende organisme wat gereeld in verskeie industriële prosesse gebruik word en kan etanol van heksose suikers produseer. Die organisme beskik nie oor die vermoë om komplekse polisakkarides wat in lignosellulose voorkom te hidroliseer nie maar. DNS-manipuleringstegnieke en rekombinante tegnologie maak dit egter moontlik die probellm te oorbrug. S. cerevisiae het nogtans tekortkominge soos hiperglikosilering en daarom word ander nie-konvensionele giste (soos Kluyveromyces lactis) tans ook vir die produksie van rekombinante proteine ondersoek. Die mannanase geen (manI) vanaf Aspergillus aculeatus is in K. lactis GG799 en S. cerevisiae Y294 uitgedruk. K. lactis transformante was stabiel vir twee weke in opeenvolgende subkluture en het ‘n Man1 van 55 kDa geproduseer. Die rekombinante Man1 ensiem het ‘n temperatuur optimum van 70°C en pH optimum van 5.0 getoon in K. Lactis. Aktiwiteitsvlakke van 160 – 180 nkat/ml was bereik na 86 uur klutivering, In vergelyking met S. cerevisiae was aktiwiteitsvlakke eenders oor ‘n periode Die disrupsie van die ku80 geen het geen effek op die stabiliteit van die transformante in 10 dae opeenvolgende sub-kulture getoon nie. Die mannosidase geen (mndA) vanaf Aspergillus niger en die mannanase geen (man1) van Aspergillus aculeatus is konstitutief in S. cerevisiae Y294 en S. cerevisiae NI-C-D4 uitgedruk. Uitdrukking van die MndA en Man1 proteïen in S. cerevisiae Y294 het onderskeidelik ‘n 140 kDa en 58 kDa spesie getoon met SDS-PAGE analisering. Die MndA ensiem het ‘n temperatuur optimum van 50°C and pH optimum van 5.0 getoon. Man1 het ‘n pH optimum van 6.0 en ‘n temperatuur optimum van 70°C getoon. MndA het lae hidrolitiese aktiwiteit op galaktoglukomannaan, maar geen β-mannosidase aktiwiteit getoon nie. Wanneer man1 and mndA saam in S. cerevisiae Y294 en S. cerevisiae NI-C-D4 uitgedruk is, het die hidroliese van galaktoglukomannan dramaties afgeneem. ‘n Toename in die grootte van ‘n plasmied veroorsaak dikwels ‘n afname in kopiegetal wat die produksie van ManI verlaag. Die ko-uitdrukking van ManI en MndA kan ook tot ’n hoër metaboliese las lei en dus die laer produksie van ManI. Resultate in hierdie studie wys daarop dat meer navorsing benodig word in die soeke na alternatiewe gashere vir uitdrukking van mannanases. Ensiem mengsels vir industriële toepassings behoort eerder gebruik te word as die ko-ekspressie van verskeie ensieme in ’n enkel gasheer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/4047
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