Petrogenesis of S-type granites : the example of the Cape Granite Suite

Villaros, Arnaud (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03)

Thesis (PhD (Earth Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY: S-type granite intrusions are extremely common in the continental crust and form from the partial melting of metasediments. Compositions of S-type granite range from leucogranite to granodiorite and have trace element contents that globally increase with increasing maficity (Fe + Mg). Models proposed for the formation of S-type granite do not answer satisfactorily all petrological and compositional requirements. In this study, S-type granite of the Cape Granite Suite (CGS), South Africa is used to discriminate between potential sources of compositional variation. Experimental studies show that melt produced from the partial melting of sediment is exclusively leucocratic. On this basis, the entrainment of up to 20 wt.% of peritectic garnet within S-type melt can be established to produce the observed major element variations. S-type CGS locally contains garnet. This garnet is in equilibrium with granite composition at P-T conditions (5kb and 750 C for the core of the garnet and 3kb and 720 C for the rim) well below conditions recorded by xenoliths from the same granite (10 kb and 850 C from a metabasite). From this result it seems that the originally entrained garnet no longer exists in the Stype CGS and it have been replaced by newly formed minerals (garnet, cordierite and biotite). Considering the short time necessary to emplace granites (about 100 000 years), it appears that garnet has been compositionnally re-equilibrated through a dissolution-precipitation process. The study of trace element variations in S-type CGS shows that most leucocratic compositions are undersaturated in Zr and Ce compared to predictions from experimental models for dissolution of accessory zircon and monazite in their source regions. Thus, S-type melts are likely to be formed in disequilibrium with respect to accessory phase stability. As a result the observed increase in trace element content with increasing maficity indicates that accessory minerals such as zircon and monazite are co-entrained with peritectic garnet in melt to produce the observed trace element variation in S-type granite. Trace element disequilibrium in the CGS S-type granitoids requires particularly short times of residence of melt within the source region. Together, these results provide for the first time, a fully comprehensive model for major and trace elements variations. Compositional variation in CGS S-type granite results from source processes by a selective entrainment of peritectic and accessory minerals. After entrainment, these minerals are likely to be re-equilibrated within the magma, through a dissolution-reprecipitation process. In addition, it appears that the construction of large S-type granitic bodies occurs through successive addition of magma batches of different composition that originates directly from the source region.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: S-tipe granietinstrusies is baie algemeen in die kontinentale kors en vorm deur die gedeeltelike smelting van metasedimente. Samestellings van S-tipe graniete strek vanaf leukograniet tot granodioriet en het spoorelementsamestellings wat global toeneem met ’n toenemende mafiese component (Fe + Mg). Modelle wat voorgestel is vir die formasie van S-tipe graniete beantwoord nie bevredigend al die petrologiese en komposisionele benodigdhede nie. In hierdie studie word S-tipe graniete van die Kaapse Graniet Suite (CGS), Suid Afrika, gebruik om te diskrimineer tussen potensiele bronne van komposisionele variasie. Eksperimentele studies wys dat smelt, geproduseer van die gedeeltelike smelting van sedimente, uitsluitlik leukokraties is. Op hierdie basis kan bewys word, dat die optel-en-meevoering van tot 20 wt% van peritektiese granaat in S-tipe smelt, die waargeneemde hoofelement variasies kan produseer. S-tipe CGS bevat lokale granaat. Hierdie granaat is in ekwilibrium met die graniet samestelling by P-T kondisies (5kb en 750circC vir die kern van die granaat en 3kb en 720circC vir die rand) ver onder kondisies waargeneem by xenoliete van dieselfde granite (10kb en 850circC van ’n metabasiet). Van hierdie resultaat kan afgelei word dat die oorspronklike opgetel-en-meegevoerde graniet bestaan nie meer in die S-tipe CGS en dat dit vervang is deur nuutgevormde minerale (granaat, kordieriet en biotiet). As in ag geneem word die kort tyd wat nodig is om graniete in te plaas (omtrent 100 000 jaar), wil dit voorkom dat granaat se samestelling geherekwilibreer word deur ’n oplossings-presipitasie proses. Die studie van spoorelement variasies in S-tipe CGS wys dat meeste leukokratiese samestellings is onderversadig in Zr en Ce in vergelyking met voorspellings deur eksperimentele modelle vir die oplossing van bykomstige zircon en monasiet in hulle brongebiede. Dus is S-tipe smelte meer geneig om gevorm te word in disekwilibrium in verhouding tot bykomstige mineraalstabilileit. Met die gevolg is dat die waargenome toename in spoorelementinhoud met toename in mafiese component wys dat bykomstige minerale, soos zirkoon en monasiet, word saam opgetel-enmeegevoer met peritektiese granaat in smelt om die waargenome spoorelement variasie in S-tipe graniete te verklaar. Spoorelement disekwilibrium in die CGS S-tipe granitoide benodig veral kort tye van residensie van die smelt binne die brongebied. Saam gee hierdie resultate vir die eerste keer ’n algehele antwoord vir hoof- en spoorelement variasies. Variasie in samestelling in CGS S-tipe graniete is die resultaat van bronprosesse deur ’n selektiewe optel-en-meevoer van peritektiese en bykomstige minerale. Na die optel-en-meevoer van hierdie minerale word hulle geherekwilibreer binne die magma deur ’n oplossings-presipitasie proses. Addisioneel wil dit voorkom of die konstruksie van groot S-tipe granietliggame plaasvind deur opeenvolgende toevoegings van magma lotte van verskillende samestellings wat direk uit die brongebied kom.

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