Click chemistry for the preparation of advanced macromolecular architectures

Akeroyd, Niels (2010-03)

Thesis (PhD (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Different click chemistry methods have been used together with Reversible Addition- Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization to synthesize macromolecular architectures. A new leaving group for RAFT was introduced. This triazole leaving group allows for easy conjugation of the RAFT agent to various substrates via the copperI catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Subsequently monomer can be polymerized onto the substrate using the RAFT agent. This connects the polymer to the substrate via a hydrolytically stable 1,2,3-triazole. The Mitsunobu reaction was used to chain-end functionalize polymers. The Mitsunobu reaction allows for the substitution of primary and secondary alcohols with a nucleophile. The modification of polymer chain-ends was done in two ways. Firstly, thiol-functional chain-ends were used as the nucleophile in the Mitsunobu reaction using propargyl alcohol as the alcohol. This yielded alkyne-functional polymers. Thiol chain-end functional polymers were obtained by the aminolysis of polymers synthesized via RAFT. Secondly, alcohol-functional polymers were modified. In the case of poly(vinylpyrrolidone), the RAFT group was hydrolyzed and alcohols were obtained. Hydroxyl functional PEG was obtained commercially. The hydroxyl functionality was reacted in the Mitsunobu reaction using hydrazoic acid (HN3) as the nucleophile. Azide chain end functional polymers were obtained. These alkyne and azide chain end functional polymers were subsequently used in the copperI catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. Ultra Fast Hetero Diels-Alder click chemistry (UFHDA) was used to synthesizes norbornenelike structures (substituted 2-thiabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene moieties). Norbornene-like structures can be polymerized via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). Monomers were synthesized using phenethyl(diethoxyphosphoryl)dithioformate and cyclopentadiene. Macromonomers were obtained from the UFHDA of Polystyrene (PSTY) synthesized via RAFT, using phenethyl(diethoxyphosphoryl) dithioformate as the RAFT agent, and cyclopentadiene or cyclopentadienyl-terminated PEG as the dienes. The obtained (macro) monomers were homo- and copolymerized using Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). For the ROMP, four different Grubbs type catalysts were tested.The ring-strain promoted Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction uses cyclooctynes as the alkyne. The ring-strain in this molecule allows for a fast reaction at room temperature. This reaction is potentially very interesting for biological applications because it doesn’t require the toxic copper catalyst. In this work three routes towards cyclooctynes are investigated. PEG was chain end functionalized with the obtained cyclooctyne derivatives. Overall, click chemistry methodologies were applied to synthesize different macromolecular architectures. Results include a new type of RAFT agent that allows for easy conjugation to substrates, reaction methods for chain end modification of polymers, and the synthesis of new monomers and polymers.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskillende kliek chemie metodes, tesame met Omkeerbare Addisie Fragmentasie ketting Oordrag beheerde polimerisasie (OAFO), is gebruik vir die sintese van makromolekulêre argitekture. ʼn Nuwe verlatende groep vir OAFO was bekend gestel. Die triazool verlatende groep bied die moontlikheid vir gemaklike koppeling van die OAFO agente met ‘n verskeidenheid van substrate via die koperI gekataliseerde Huisgen 1,3-dipolêre siklo-addisie reaksie. Gevolglik kan monomere gepolimeriseer word op die substraat deur middel van die OAFO agent. Dit laat toe vir die koppeling van die polimeer op die substraat via a hidrolitiese stabiele 1,2,3-triazool. Die Mitsunobu reaksie was gebruik vir die funksionaliseering van die end groepe van die polimeer ketting. Die Mitsunobu reaksie laat toe vir die substitusie van primêre en sekondêre alkohole met ‘n nukleofiel. Die verandering van die polimeer ketting end groepe was uitgevoer op twee verskillende maniere. Eerstens is ketting end groepe met ‘n tiol funktionaliteit gebruik as a nukleofiel in die Mitsunobu reaksie deur gebruik te maak van propargiel alkohol as die alkohol. Dit het alkyn funktionele polimere opgelewer. Tiol ketting end funktionele polimere was verkry deur middel van aminolise van die polimere gesintetiseer via OAFA. Tweedens is alkohol funktionele polimere gemodifiseer. In die geval van poli(N-vinielpirolidoon) is die OAFA grope gehidroliseer en gevolglik is alkohole verkry op hierdie manier. Kommersiële funksionele PEG was gebruik. Die hidroksie funksionele groep was gereageer in die Mitsunobu reaksie deur gebruik te maak van waterstof asied (HN3) as die nukleofiel. Dit het asied funksionele ketting eindes opgelewer. Die alkyne en asied ketting end funksionele polimere was gevolglik gebruik in die koperI gekataliseerde Huisgen 1,3- dipolêre siklo-addisie reaksie. Ultra Vinnige Hetero Diels-Alder kliek chemie (UVHDA) was gebruik vir die sintese van norborneen agtige strukture (gesubstitueerde 2-tiabisiklo[2.2.1]hept-5-een groepe). Monomere was gesintetiseer deur gebruik te maak van fenieletiel(di-etoksifosforiel)di-tioformaat en siklopentadiëen of siklopentadiëen-getermineerde PEG. Die sintese van makromonomere is verkry via UVHDA deur gebruik te maak van polistireen, gesintetiseer deur middel van OAFO (waar fenieletiel(dietoksifosforiel) di-tioformaat gebruik is as OAFO agent), en siklopentadiëen of siklopentadiëengetermineerde PEG. Die makromonomere wat verkry is, is verder gebruik vir homo- en kopolimerisasie deur middel van Ring Opening Metatesis Polimerisasie, ROMP. Vir die ROMP is vier verskillende Grubbs tipe kataliste gebruik. Die ring-spanning bevorderde die Huisgen 1,3,-dipolêre siklo-addissie reaksie waar siklooketyne gebruik is as die alkyne. Die ring-spanning in die molekule laat toe vir vinninge reaksies by kamer temperatuur. Die reaksie het die potensiaal vir interessante biologiese toepassings aangesien dit nie ’n kopper katalis vereis nie wat toksies van aard is. In die studie word drie roetes ten einde to siko-oktyn ondersoek. PEG was geketting end gefunksionaliseerd met die gevolgde siko-oktyne afgeleides. Verskillende kliek chemie metodologiëe was toegepas vir die sintese van verskillende makromolekulêre argitekture. Resultate sluit in een nuwe tipe OAFO agent wat maklike konjugasie met substrate bewerkstellig, ketting einde modifikasie van polimere, nuwe monomere en polimere wat gesintetiseer is.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/3985
This item appears in the following collections: