Laser induced chlorphyll fluorescence of plant material
Thesis (MSc (Physics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.
Imaging and spectroscopy of laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LICF) are emerging as useful tools in plant physiology and agriculture since these methods allow an early detection of plant stress and transformation of plant tissue, before visual symptoms appear. Chlorophyll fluorescence is governed by photosynthetic efficiency and it depends on the plant species and physiological state. In addition, the laser induced fluorescence of chlorophyll molecules in the red and far red spectral range is also used to study basic processes and phenomena in photo-excited molecules. In the work reported here experimental setups used for laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy techniques were developed to investigate chlorophyll fluorescence under constant illumination and also to detect green-fluorescent protein (GFP) by looking at the chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum and image. He-Ne (wavelength 632 nm), tunable argon ion (wavelength 455 nm), and excimer (wavelength 308 nm) lasers were used as excitation sources. An Ocean Optics spectrometer was used to record the spectrum of the chlorophyll fluorescence and the variation of the chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum with time. The chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum of tobacco leaves expressing GFP was compared to that of control leaves. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was used to image the fluorescence from GFP expressing and control tobacco leaves to investigate the effect of GFP genes on chlorophyll fluorescence in relation to the state of the plant material. The spectral analysis technique and image processing procedures were elaborated in order to obtain better information on chlorophyll fluorescence. The results of this work show that the experimental setups and analytical procedures that were devised and used are suitable for laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence bleaching could be obtained from the time variation of the fluorescence spectrum, and plant expressing GFP can be distinguished from control plants by differences in the laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence.