Persuasive messages of some married men in Xhosa

Titi, Nonzolo (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12)

Thesis (MA (African Languages))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Issues relating to persuasive-message production motivated this study to investigate the extent to which married Xhosa men use persuasive messages in their conversations. The study also explored the influence goals that married Xhosa men wish to attain when they engage in persuasive interactions. The study furthermore aimed to determine the persuasive strategies used by married Xhosa men in their persuasive messages. Dillard and Marshall (2003) defined persuasion as an occurrence that comprises longer, naturally impromptu messages concentrating mainly on a large body of discussion with preferred topics of social, political and commercial importance. Goals have been given much attention, since they play a major role in persuasive messages. Dillard and Marshall (2003) distinguished between two types of goals: primary goals and secondary goals. Primary goals are also referred to as influence goals and are defined as the state of affairs that people wish to bring about (Dillard & Marshall, 2003). The two authors mentioned also identified different types of primary goals, referring to them as motivations behind the source’s influence attempt. Different types of primary goals have been found in various works, including the works of Dillard (2003), Wilson and Sabee (2003), Wilson (2002), Cody et al. (1994), Dillard et al. (1989), Wilson and Kunkel (2000) and Schrader and Dillard (1998). This study examined the approaches, such as directness or indirectness, that married Xhosa men use when conveying their messages. It endeavoured to discover the persuasive problems encountered by these men and other issues related to the production of a persuasive message. In this study, the goal of giving advice appeared to be the one used most by the men. The study revealed that the main reason for the men giving advice was to help people in their society to lead healthy lifestyles. It also showed that the common use of the advisory goal is valued in Xhosa culture and that it is, to a certain extent, appreciated by those who are being advised.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Kwessies wat verband hou met die skep van oorredende boodskappe was die dryfveer agter hierdie studie wat ondersoek ingestel het na die mate waartoe getroude Xhosamans oorredende boodskappe in hulle gesprekke gebruik. Die studie het ook die invloed van doelstellings wat getroude Xhosamans graag wil bereik wanneer hulle by oorredende interaksies betrokke raak, verken. Die studie het verder ten doel gehad om die oorredende strategieë wat deur getroude Xhosamans in hulle oorredende boodskappe gebruik word, te bepaal. Dillard en Marshall (2003) het oorreding gedefinieer as gebeurtenis wat langer boodskappe, wat van nature impromptu is, behels en wat hoofsaaklik op groot massa bespreking met verkose onderwerpe van sosiale, politieke en kommersiële belang konsentreer. Heelwat aandag is aan doelstellings gegee aangesien dit belangrike rol in oorredende boodskappe speel. Dillard en Marshall (2003) onderskei twee soorte doelstellings: primêre doelstellings en sekondêre doelstellings. Primêre doelstellings word ook invloeddoelstellings genoem en dit word gedefinieer as die toedrag van sake wat mense teweeg wil bring (Dillard & Marshall, 2003). Genoemde twee outeurs noem ook geïdentifiseerde verskillende soorte primêre doelstellings, en beskryf hierdie soort as motiverings agter die bron se poging tot invloed. Verskillende soorte primêre doelstellings is in verskeie werke aangetref, met inbegrip van die werk van Dillard (2003), Wilson en Sabee (2003), Wilson (2002), Cody et al. (1994), Dillard et al. (1989), Wilson en Kunkel (2000) en Schrader en Dillard (1998). Hierdie studie het die benaderings, soos direktheid of indirektheid, ondersoek wat getroude Xhosamans gebruik wanneer hulle boodskappe oordra. Daar is probeer om die oorredende probleme wat deur hierdie mans teëgekom word en ander kwessies wat met die produksie van oorredende boodskap verband hou, vas te stel. In hierdie studie lyk dit asof die doel om raad te gee dié is wat die meeste deur die mans gebruik word. Die studie het aan die lig gebring dat die hoofrede waarom die mans raad gee, is om mense in hulle gemeenskap te help om gesonde lewenstyle te handhaaf. Dit het ook getoon dat daar aan die gewone gebruik van die raadgewende doel in die Xhosakultuur waarde geheg word en dat dit, tot sekere mate, deur diegene wat raad gegee word, gewaardeer word.

ISISHWANKATHELO: Imicimbi enxulumene nokuveliswa kwemiyalezo yotshintsho lwengqondo iye yaphembelela ukuba kuphandwe ubungakanani bokusetyenziswa kwemiyalezo etshintsha ingqondo kwincoko ngamadoda amaXhosa atshatileyo. Esi sifundo sikwaphonononga ezona njongo zoxinzelelo la madoda athi abe nomnqweno wokuzifezekisa xa ezibandakanya kwiinkqubo zotshintsho lwengqondo. Ngaphezu koko, esi sifundo sikwajolise ekufumaniseni amaqhinga okutshintsha ingqondo athi asetyenziswe ngamadoda amaXhosa atshatileyo kwimiyalezo yawo yokutshintsha ingqondo. Njengoko kuchaziwe ngu Dillard no Marshall (2003), utshintsho lwengqondo sisenzeko esiquka imiyalezo emide, engalungiselelwanga kwangendalo, egxila ngakumbi kwiingxoxo ezinemiba eliqela enemixholo engentlalo, ezopolitiko nezingokubaluleka korhwebo. Iinjongo abantu abathi bafune ukuzifezekisa zinikwe ingqwalasela enkulu nanje ngoko zidlala indima ephambili kwimiyalezo etshintsha ingqondo. UDillard no Marshall bangowama-(2003) bohlula phakathi kweentlobo ezimbini zeenjongo abantu abanazo nabathi banqwenele ukuzifezekisa; iinjongo ezisisiseko (Primary goals) kunye neenjongo zenqanaba lesibini (Secondary goals). Iinjongo ezisisiseko zikwabizwa ngokuba ziinjongo ezinoxinixelelo (influence goals) kwaye zichazwa ngokuba ziinjongo abathi abantu banqwenele ukuzifezekisa ngu Dillard no Marshall bangowama-(2003). Bakwalatha iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zeenjongo ezisisiseko abakwazibiza ngokuba ziimpembelelo ezithi ziphembelele umzamo wokutshintsha ingqondo womvelisi womyalezo lowo. Ezi ntlobo zahlukeneyo zeenjongo ezisisiseko zifunyaniswe kwimisebenzi eyahlukeneyo, misebenzi leyo equka umsebenzi ka- Dillard no Marshall bangowama-(2003), ka-Wilson no Sabee bangowama-(2003), ka- Wilson wangowama-(2002), ka-Cody et al. bangowama-(1994), ka-Dillard et al. bangowama-(1989), ka-Wilson no Kunkel bangowama-(2000), kwakunye noka Schrader no Dillard bangowama-(1998). Esi sifundo sikwaphonononga nendlela athi amadoda amaXhosa atshatileyo ayisebenzise xa egqithisa imiyalezo yawo, umzekelo ukuthi ngqo (Directness) okanye ukungathi ngqo (Indirectness) kwimiyalezo yawo. Esi sifundo sikwazama ukufumanisa iingxaki zotshintsho lwengqondo ezithi zifunyanwe ngala madoda kuquka neminye imiba enxulumene nokuveliswa kwemiyalezo yotshintsho ingqondo. Kwesi sifundo injongo yokunika icebiso ibonakala iyeyona isetywenziswa kakhulu ngamadoda amaXhosa atshatileyo. Esi sifundo sivelisa ukuba iyonke injongo yokucebisa kula madoda kukunceda abantu ekuhlaleni ukuba babenobomi obusempilweni. Ukusetyenziswa kakhulu kwenjoko yokucebisa kwesi sifundo kukwabonakalisa ukuba injonjo yokucebisa ixatyiswe kakhulu kwinkcubeko yamaXhosa kwaye ngokwezinga elithile ikwathakazelelwa ngabo banikwa icebiso

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