Investigating intermolecular interactions motifs in ammonium carboxylate salts

Odendal, James Arthur (2009-12)

Thesis (MSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis reports an in-depth investigation of the intermolecular interaction motifs in secondary, primary and ammonium carboxylate salts. The investigation was conducted using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), together with a systematic steric-specific experimental study. The tendency in the literature has been to analyse organic salt crystal structures in terms of hydrogen bonding patterns, almost ignoring cation-anion interactions. This study focuses on the cation-anion interactions in secondary, primary and ammonium carboxylate salts, which have a direct effect on the formation of specific structural motifs. The ideas of ring-stacking and ring-laddering, which arise from the tendency of cations and anions to arrange themselves so as to maximise electrostatic interactions, have been applied to ammonium carboxylate salts. An extensive survey of organic ammonium carboxylate salt structures in the CSD has been carried out. The structural motifs in ammonium carboxylates were investigated, and a set of predictive rules for the pattern of intermolecular interactions in these salts was developed. Using these results, the formation of ring-stacking or ring-laddering in primary ammonium carboxylate salts can be predicted. The results from the CSD survey are discussed in Chapter 3. An experimental study has been carried out, which complements the results obtained from the CSD survey. The experimental study formed 19 novel ammonium carboxylate salts, of which 2 formed hydrates and 2 co-crystals of salts. The experimental results confirm what was found in the CSD survey, and this is discussed in Chapter 4. This study has found that the principle of ring-stacking and ring-laddering can be applied in a general form to the crystal structures of organic ammonium carboxylate salts. The size of the cation and the anion in these salts has a significant effect on the formation of structural motifs in the solid state. Interactions between cation and anion substituents also play an important role in the formation of particular structural motifs in ammonium carboxylate salts.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie tesis word die intermolekulêre interaksie motiewe in die sekondêre, primêre en ammonium karbosilaat soute in-diepte ondersoek. Die studie is gedoen met behulp van die Cambridge Strukturele Databasis (CSD), saam met ‟n sistematiese steriesspesifieke eksperimentele studie. Die neiging in die literatuur is om organiese sout kristal strukture in terme van waterstofbindings patrone te analiseer sonder om katioon-anioon interaksies in ag te neem. Die studie fokus juis op hierdie katioon-anioon interaksies tussen sekondêre, primêre en ammonium karbosilaat soute wat ‟n direkte effek het op die vorming van spesifieke strukturele motiewe naamlik „ring-stacking‟ en „ring-laddering‟ wat hul oorsprong kry vanaf die neiging van katione en anione om hulself op so ‟n wyse te rangskik sodat die elektrostatiese interaksies ‟n maksimum kan bereik, op die ammonium karboksilaat soute. ‟n Volledige ondersoek van ammonium karboksilaat soute in die CSD is gedoen. Die strukturele motiewe in ammonium karboksilaat is ondersoek, en ‟n stel reels wat die patrone van intermolekulêre interaksies in hierdie soute voorspelis ontwikkel. Hierdie resultate kan gebruik word om die vorming van „ring-stacking‟ en „ring-laddering‟ in primêre ammonium karbosilaat soute te voorspel. Die resultate van die CSD ondersoek word bespreek in Hoofstuk 3. ‟n Eksperimentele studie is uitgevoer en die resultate hiervan komplimenteer die resultate van die CSD ondersoek. In die eksperimentele studie is 19 nuwe ammonium karboksilaat soute gekristaliseer, waarvan 2 hidraat-soute en 2 ko-kristal-van-soute is. Die eksperimentele resultate bevestig die bevindings van die CSD ondersoek, en dit word bespreek in Hoofstuk 4. Hierdie studie het gevind dat die beginsel van „ring-stacking‟ en „ring-laddering‟ kan in „n algemene vorm in die kristal strukture van organiese ammonium karboksilaat soute toegepas word. Die grootte van die katioon en anion in hierdie soute het ‟n beduidende effek op die vorming van strukturele motiewe in die vaste toestand. Interaksie tussen die katioon en anioon substituente speel „n belangrike rol in die vorming van spesifieke motiewe in ammonium karbosilaat soute.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2965
This item appears in the following collections: