Laat adolessente se identiteitsontwikkelingstatus na 'n gapingsjaar

Bosman, Cornelia Christina (Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych (Educational Psychology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Duisende jong Suid-Afrikaners vertrek jaarliks op ‘n gapingsjaar (”gap year”) oorsee. ‘n Populêre siening in die media asook die wyer publiek is dat hierdie gapingsjaar die ideale tydperk is vir jongmense waar hulle hulleself kan “vind”. ’n Gapingsjaar word tipies onderneem in laat adolessensie (tussen 18 en 25 jaar). Die idee dat laat adolessente hulleself moet “vind” sluit aan by die ontwikkelingsteoretici se psigososiale konsep van identiteitsformasie. Die mees belangrike ontwikkelingstaak tydens laat adolessensie is die vestiging van ’n koherente identiteit en is ’n redelike mate van identiteitsverwerwing na afloop van adolessensie kritiek. ’n Belemmerde identiteitsverwerwing kan hul persoonlike selfstandigheid en outonomie wesenlik inperk. Die vraag het ontstaan of laat adolessente hulleself wérklik “vind” in ’n gapingsjaar soos die media-ideologie dit uitbeeld? Tot op hede (nasionaal en internasionaal) kon geen navorsing gevind word wat verband hou met ʼn gapingsjaar en identiteitsontwikkeling nie. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was om die identiteitsontwikkelingstatus van Suid-Afrikaanse laat adolessente na ’n gapingsjaar te bepaal. Die basiese veronderstelling en populêre siening dat laat adolessente na afloop van ’n gapingsjaar ’n verworwe status van identiteitsontwikkeling het, is ondersoek. Om die identiteitstatus te assesseer is 288 Suid-Afrikaanse gapingsjaar laat adolessente genader en ’n kwantitatiewe opname metode is gebruik. Die gekose instrument vir die identiteitstatus ondersoek is die Extended Version of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS-II). ’n Demografiese vraelys is geadministreer om beskrywende data verkry en te kyk watter demografiese eienskappe statisties korreleer met die onderskeie identiteitsontwikkelingstatusse van respondente. Die gestruktureerde vraelys is via ʼn webtuiste, met pen en papier of telefonies voltooi. In stryd met die populêre siening en media-ideologie is die bevinding dat die minderheid respondente (slegs 14.5%) geklassifiseer kon word in die verworwe identiteitstatus na ‘n gapingsjaar. Die meerderheid val binne die moratorium- en diffusestatus wat beteken dat hulle nie ‘n binding gemaak het tot ‘n identiteit na hul gapingsjaar nie. Gapingsjaar adolessente se ouderdom, tyd terug na hul gapingsjaar, die behoort aan ‘n religieuse groep (tydens hul gapingsjaar) of hul verhoudingstatus (tydens hul gapingsjaar) is eerder geassosieer met ‘n verworwe identiteitstatus. Vroegtydige en pro-aktiewe terapeutiese en opvoedkundige ondersteuning tydens hierdie ontvanklike periode, kan bydra tot ’n groter positiewe identiteitsontwikkeling van jongmense. Hierdie studie kan bydra tot die kennisbasis vir Suid-Afrikaanse navorsing.

ENGLISH SUMMARY: Thousands of young South-Africans embark every year on a gap year overseas. A popular notion in the media as well as the wider public is that the gap year is the ideal period for young people to ‘find themselves”. A gap year is typically undertaken in late adolescence (age between 18 and 25). The idea that adolescents should ‘find’ themselves relates to developmental theorists’ psychosocial concept of identity formation. The most important development task during late adolescence is the forming of a coherent identity and a reasonable amount of identity formation after adolescence is critical. Impeded identity formation can severely curb their self-dependency and autonomy. The question is raised whether adolescents really ‘find’ themselves during a gap year, as the media would have us believe. No research (nationally and internationally) could be found which relates to the gap year and identity formation. The aim of this study was to determine the identity development status of late adolescents having been on gap year. The basic assumption and popular view that adolescents would have an achieved status of identity formation, is investigated. To assess the identity status, 288 South-African late adolescents who has taken a gap year was asked to participate in a quantitative survey. The chosen instrument for the identity status investigation is the Extended Version of Ego Identity Status (EOM-EIS-II). A demographic questionnaire was also included to gain descriptive data. The data was used to test which demographic properties correlate with the respective identity formation statuses of participants. The structured questionnaire could be completed via a website, with pen and paper or telephonically. Contrary to the popular notion in the media and public, the finding is that the minority respondents (only 14.5%) could be classified in the achieved identity status after the gap year. The majority falls in the moratorium- and diffused statuses, which means that a binding was not formed with their identity after their gap years. Rather, demographics like age, time back after gap year, religious affiliation (during gap year) and relationship status was found to be associated with an achieved identity status. Early and pro-active therapeutic and educational support during this receptive period (adolescence), can contribute to better identity development of young people and this study can therefore contribute to the South- African research knowledgebase.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2928
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