The time-dependent cracking behaviour of strain hardening cement-based composite

Adendorff, Christo Johan (2009-12)

Thesis (MScEng (Civil Engineering))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Strain Hardening Cement-based Composite (SHCC) is part of the High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cement-based Composite (HPFRCC) family and is a relative new concrete composite. This Fibre Reinforced Cement-based Composite (FRCC) contains randomly distributed short fibres and when subjected to a uni-axial tensile load multiple cracking occurs. The multiple cracking generates fine cracks which are normally smaller than 100 μm and achieve a strain capacity of more than 5 %. There are limited publications regarding the research of sustained tensile tests on SHCC and especially the cracking behaviour of SHCC under quasi-static uni-axial as well as sustained tensile loads. The cracking behaviour is described as the average crack width, number of cracks and descriptive statistical properties which could be used to represent the distribution of the multiple fine cracks under uni-axial tension. There are two types of tests that were under consideration to determine the cracking behaviour of SHCC. The first is quasi-static uniaxial tensile tests and the second is sustained tensile tests. The latter was dependant on the uni-axial tensile tests in terms of the sustained load applied. The sustained loads ranged from 40 % to 80 % of the ultimate tensile resistance recorded from the uni-axial tensile tests that correspond with a strain rate of 0.001 /s. Different strain rates were used for the uni-axial tensile tests to determine the effect on the cracking behaviour. The cracking behaviour was determined with the aid of a non-contact optical 3D digital deformation measuring device called ARAMIS. The content of this thesis gives a background study of the cracking behaviour and relevant research performed on SHCC under certain loads as well as some literature about the timedependant effects of a cement-based composite. The functioning of the device called ARAMIS is explained as well as the resulting effects of this device on the preparation of the test specimens. The experimental framework for the uni-axial and sustained tensile tests is discussed. Thereafter, the experimental results of the tests are depicted and discussed. The results shed some light on the basic material properties such as the average ultimate stress and average ultimate strain, Young’s modulus, etc. for the quasi-static tensile tests as well as shrinkage and creep of SHCC. The cracking behaviour such as the average crack width, number of cracks, the variance and skewness of the distribution of the crack widths in the test specimens for the quasi-static uni-axial and sustained tensile tests are depicted and discussed. The cracking behaviour when subjected to uni-axial tensile tests with different strain rates is significantly governed by the formation of new cracks and the average crack width remains small with increase in strain. There is no significant difference for the cracking behaviour found when subjected to different strain rates. However, when SHCC is subjected to a sustained load then the average crack width is dependant on the number of cracks that form over time as well as the load level. The formation of fewer and wider cracks was observed for specimens loaded at average 40 % of the ultimate tensile resistance stress, however at loading percentages of higher than 65 % more cracks developed which resulted in a smaller average crack width.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vervorming Verharding Sement gebaseerde samestelling “Strain Hardening Cement-based Composite” (SHCC) is deel van die familie van “High Performance Fibre Reinforced Cement-based Composite” (HPFRCC) en is ʼn relatiewe nuwe beton samestelling. Hierdie vesel versterkte sement gebaseerde beton bevat willekeurig verspreide kort vesels en veelvoudige klein krake vorm onder monotoniese trekkragte. Hierdie veelvoudige klein krake is minder as 100 μm wyd en lei tot ʼn vervorming van meer as 5 %. Daar is ʼn tekort aan navorsing oor die kruip van SHCC sowel as die kraak gedrag van hierdie sement gebaseerde samestelling onderhewig aan trek. Die kraak gedrag word beskryf as die gemiddelde kraakwydte, aantal krake en ʼn paar beskrywende statistiese parameters. Hierdie kraak gedrag parameters kan gebruik word om ʼn verdeling te kan weergee van die veelvoudige klein krake onder ʼn trek belasting. Twee tipes toetse was uitgevoer om die kraak gedrag te beskryf. Die eerste tipe toets was monotoniese trek toetse en die tweede tipe was kruip toetse. Die tweede toets was afhanklik van die monotoniese trek toetse in terme van die belasting wat gebruik was vir die kruip toetse. Die belasting was gevarieer vanaf 40 % tot 80 % van die breekbelasting wat bepaal is met die monotoniese trektoetse wat ooreenstem met ʼn vervorming tempo van 0.001 /s. Verskillende vervorming tempo’s vir die monotoniese trektoetse was uitgevoer om te bepaal wat die effek is op die kraak gedrag. Die kraak gedrag was bepaal met behulp van ʼn geen-kontak optiese 3D digitale deformasie meet instrument genoem ARAMIS. Die inhoud van die tesis bevat ʼn kort opsoming oor ʼn agtergrond studie van die kraak gedrag en relevante navorsing oor vesel versterkte sement gebaseerde beton, sowel as literatuur oor die tydafhanklike effekte van ʼn sement gebaseerde samestelling. Die beheer en gebruik van die meet instrument ARAMIS word verduidelik, sowel as die effek van hierdie masjien op die voorbereiding vir die eksperimente. Die eksperimentele uiteensetting vir die monotoniese en kruip toetse word beskryf. Daarvolgens is die resultate van die eksperimentele toetse getoon en verduidelik. Die resultate verduidelik die basiese materiaal eienskappe, byvoorbeeld die gemiddelde breekspanning met die ooreenkomstige breekvervorming, Young’s modulus en so voorts vir die monotoniese trektoetse, sowel as eienskappe met betrekking tot krimp en kruip van SHCC. Die kraak gedrag naamlik die gemiddelde kraakwydte, aantal krake per meter, variansie en die skuinsheid van die ontwikkelde krake met die toets proefstukke vir die monotoniese en kruip trek toetse word weergegee en verduidelik. Die kraak gedrag van SHCC wanneer getoets word met verskillende monotoniese trektoets tempo’s word beheer deur die ontwikkeling van nuwe krake en die gemiddelde kraakwydte is beduidend laag met toenemende vervorming. Daar is geen beduidende verskil in die kraak gedrag ten opsigte van die verskillende monotoniese trek tempo’s nie. In teendeel, wanneer SHCC belas word met ʼn konstante las oor tyd word die gemiddelde kraakwydte beheer deur die ontwikkeling van nuwe krake sowel as die belasting wat aangewend is. Onder ʼn belasting van so laag as 40 % van die breekbelasting vorm daar minder krake, maar met ʼn groter gemiddelde kraakwydte. Wanneer belas word met meer as 65 % van die breekbelasting vorm meer krake wat lei tot ʼn kleiner gemiddelde kraakwydte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2847
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