A nutritional and financial evaluation of breeding African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus)
Thesis (MPhil (Animal Sciences))--University of Stellenbosch, 2004.
African Grey Parrots are now being bred on a commercial scale in South Africa, mainly for the export market. In order to produce the best breeding results it is necessary to formulate balanced diets but no research has been done on the feeding value for African Grey parrots of ingredients used in formulating diets. Once the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of extruded maize for African Greys has been established it will be possible to calculate the AME of other ingredients such as full fat soya, soya oil cake or sunflower oil cake. By feeding an extruded mix containing a known amount of maize mixed with a known amount of soya oil cake and establishing experimentally the AME of the mix, the AME of soya oil cake for African Greys can be calculated by difference. This information will make it possible to decide whether AME results obtained for poultry can be used in formulating diets for African Grey parrots. The study consisted of two parts where the determination of the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of extruded maize and the practical application thereof in formulating parrot diets, and the economic viability of a commercial African Grey parrot breeding operation was investigated. A reference procedure adopted by several European laboratories for the in vivo determination of metabolisable energy (ME) was used to determine the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of extruded whole maize for African Grey parrots. The long term goal is to make a well balanced, extruded diet for these birds. Extruded maize is the form in which maize is generally included in commercial parrot diets and was therefore chosen as the experimental feed. Maize can be conveniently extruded with other single ingredients such as full fat soyabean meal, soyabean oil cake meal or sunflower oil cake meal to determine, by difference, the AME of those ingredients. For the first part of the study, ten, 3-year-old African Grey parrots were individually housed and fed in cages designed to facilitate collection of the faeces. Cage design varied between a tall type (n=6) and a low type (n=4). The parrots were acclimatized to their new environment before the trial commenced to ensure normal feeding behaviour. The average AME value established for the ten African Grey Parrots was 16.8 MJ/kg. In the trial it became apparent that it is very difficult to get consistent results with the cages used and a modified cage design is proposed for the future. The second part of the study investigated the economic viability of breeding African Grey parrots commercially, with extruded maize as part of their diet. It was generally concluded that the breeding of African Grey parrots for the pet market can be considered as an economical venture.