# Numerical Laplace transformation methods for integrating linear parabolic partial differential equations

Ngounda, Edgard (2009-12)

Thesis (MSc (Applied Mathematics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In recent years the Laplace inversion method has emerged as a viable alternative method for the numerical solution of PDEs. Effective methods for the numerical inversion are based on the approximation of the Bromwich integral. In this thesis, a numerical study is undertaken to compare the efficiency of the Laplace inversion method with more conventional time integrator methods. Particularly, we consider the method-of-lines based on MATLAB’s ODE15s and the Crank-Nicolson method. Our studies include an introductory chapter on the Laplace inversion method. Then we proceed with spectral methods for the space discretization where we introduce the interpolation polynomial and the concept of a differentiation matrix to approximate derivatives of a function. Next, formulas of the numerical differentiation formulas (NDFs) implemented in ODE15s, as well as the well-known second order Crank-Nicolson method, are derived. In the Laplace method, to compute the Bromwich integral, we use the trapezoidal rule over a hyperbolic contour. Enhancement to the computational efficiency of these methods include the LU as well as the Hessenberg decompositions. In order to compare the three methods, we consider two criteria: The number of linear system solves per unit of accuracy and the CPU time per unit of accuracy. The numerical results demonstrate that the new method, i.e., the Laplace inversion method, is accurate to an exponential order of convergence compared to the linear convergence rate of the ODE15s and the Crank-Nicolson methods. This exponential convergence leads to high accuracy with only a few linear system solves. Similarly, in terms of computational cost, the Laplace inversion method is more efficient than ODE15s and the Crank-Nicolson method as the results show. Finally, we apply with satisfactory results the inversion method to the axial dispersion model and the heat equation in two dimensions.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In die afgelope paar jaar het die Laplace omkeringsmetode na vore getree as ’n lewensvatbare alternatiewe metode vir die numeriese oplossing van PDVs. Effektiewe metodes vir die numeriese omkering word gebasseer op die benadering van die Bromwich integraal. In hierdie tesis word ’n numeriese studie onderneem om die effektiwiteit van die Laplace omkeringsmetode te vergelyk met meer konvensionele tydintegrasie metodes. Ons ondersoek spesifiek die metode-van-lyne, gebasseer op MATLAB se ODE15s en die Crank-Nicolson metode. Ons studies sluit in ’n inleidende hoofstuk oor die Laplace omkeringsmetode. Dan gaan ons voort met spektraalmetodes vir die ruimtelike diskretisasie, waar ons die interpolasie polinoom invoer sowel as die konsep van ’n differensiasie-matriks waarmee afgeleides van ’n funksie benader kan word. Daarna word formules vir die numeriese differensiasie formules (NDFs) ingebou in ODE15s herlei, sowel as die welbekende tweede orde Crank-Nicolson metode. Om die Bromwich integraal te benader in die Laplace metode, gebruik ons die trapesiumreël oor ’n hiperboliese kontoer. Die berekeningskoste van al hierdie metodes word verbeter met die LU sowel as die Hessenberg ontbindings. Ten einde die drie metodes te vergelyk beskou ons twee kriteria: Die aantal lineêre stelsels wat moet opgelos word per eenheid van akkuraatheid, en die sentrale prosesseringstyd per eenheid van akkuraatheid. Die numeriese resultate demonstreer dat die nuwe metode, d.i. die Laplace omkeringsmetode, akkuraat is tot ’n eksponensiële orde van konvergensie in vergelyking tot die lineêre konvergensie van ODE15s en die Crank-Nicolson metodes. Die eksponensiële konvergensie lei na hoë akkuraatheid met slegs ’n klein aantal oplossings van die lineêre stelsel. Netso, in terme van berekeningskoste is die Laplace omkeringsmetode meer effektief as ODE15s en die Crank-Nicolson metode. Laastens pas ons die omkeringsmetode toe op die aksiale dispersiemodel sowel as die hittevergelyking in twee dimensies, met bevredigende resultate.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2735

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