Transpersonal practices as prevention intervention for burnout amongst HIV/AIDS coordinator teachers

Johnson, Sharon Mary (2010-03)

Thesis (MA (Psychology))--University of Stellenbosch, 2010.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The impact of transpersonal psychology techniques presented in Capacitar workshops as a prevention intervention for burnout amongst HIV/Aids coordinator teachers has not been studied to date in South Africa. This research project utilised a mixed-method approach in a pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design. Educators from South Metro, who were HIV/Aids co-ordinators in their schools, were invited to attend six days in total of Capacitar workshops. Measures of their levels of stress and burnout were taken before and after the intervention. Thirty teachers volunteered to take part in the workshops and 27 completed the training. A control group (n=27) was chosen from a group of teachers in the Central and South Metros of the Western Cape, South Africa. The Capacitar workshops were presented by facilitators who had been trained and accredited by Dr Pat Cane, founder of Capacitar International, California, USA. The overall theoretical perspective adopted in the transformative approach was transpersonal psychology. While equal priority was given to both the quantitative and qualitative legs of the study, the quantitative data were gathered first. The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to measure anxiety and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) was used to measure three dimensions of burnout: personal, work and client burnout. The means of the intervention and control groups of teachers were found to be similar on the BAI and CBI prior to the intervention. After the workshops, there were significant reductions in anxiety, personal and work burnout in the post-test measures of the intervention group. There were also significant differences in personal and work burnout of teachers between the intervention and control groups. Although reduction in the levels of anxiety and client burnout (working with children) was evident in the intervention group, this was not significant. The control group showed no significant improvement on any measures and in some cases, levels of burnout increased. Qualitative data in the form of global analysis of focus group interviews provided insights into the experience of workshop delegates, and their teaching contexts. To cope with work and personal stressors, teachers turned to physical (n=29), mental (n=17) and spiritual activities (n=15), with many (n=19) using negative coping tools. Individual line sketches, a collage of outliers and mind maps, together with portraits of delegates, highlighted the context and experiences in the Capacitar workshops. As a result of exposure to transpersonal practices, HIV/Aids coordinator teachers were first able to start the process of healing themselves, and then turn to their families, learners and the community at large to share the tools offered. The qualitative data also yielded sixteen themes: Increased consciousness; personal empowerment; role empowerment as carers; emotional intelligence; mindfulness; heart coherence; processing traumatic pain; multiculturalism; self-acceptance; light heartedness; interconnectedness, sharing; forgiveness; holistic, right brain healing; changing brain patterns; mind-body-spirit integration and a return to wholeness. The results of this study showed both quantitatively and qualitatively that transpersonal psychological techniques mediated burnout amongst HIV/Aids coordinator teachers in Metro South, Western Cape Education Department, Mitchells Plain, Cape Town. Recommendations are made in the light of the findings and the limitations of the study.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die impak van transpersoonlike sielkundige tegnieke wat aangebied is in Capacitar werkswinkels, as „n voorkomings-intervensie rakende uitbranding op onderwysers wat as MIV/Vigs ko-ordineerders funksioneer, is nog nie voorheen in Suid-Afrika ondersoek nie. Hierdie navorsingsprojek het „n kwantitatiewe-kwalitatiewe benadering gebruik met ‟n vooren natoets kwasi-eksperimentele ontwerp. Opvoeders van die suidelike metropool/grootstad wat werk as MIV/Vigs ko-ordineerders in hulle skool, is uitgenooi om altesaam ses dae van die Capacitar werkswinkels by te woon. Die deelnemers se vlakke van stres en ooreising is voor en na die intervensie gemeet. Dertig onderwysers was gewillig om deel te neem aan die werkwinkels en sewe-en-twintig het die opleiding voltooi. „n Kontrole groep (n=27) is gekies vanuit „n groep onderwysers in die sentrale en suidelike metropool van die Wes-Kaap, Suid- Afrika. Die Capacitar werkswinkels is aangebied deur geakkrediteerde fasiliteerders wat opgelei is deur dr. Pat Cane, die stigter van Capacitar Internasionaal, California, VSA. Transpersoonlike sielkunde is die oorhoofse teoretiese perspektief wat gehandhaaf is in die transformatiewe benadering. Alhoewel gelyke prioriteit verleen is aan beide die kwantitatiewe en die kwalitatiewe komponente van die studie, is die kwantitatiewe data eerste ingesamel. Die “Beck Anxiety Inventory” (BAI) en die “Copenhagen Burnout Inventory” (CBI) is gebruik om die drie dimensies van uitbranding te bepaal: Persoonlike-, werk- en kliëntooreising. Daar is vasgestel dat die gemiddeldes van die intervensie en die kontrole groepe dieselfde is vir die BAI en die CBI meet-instrumente voordat die intervensie aangebied is. Betekenisvolle verskille is gevind met die na-toets vir die intervensie-groep, naamlik die vermindering van angs, persoonlike- en werks-ooreising. Daar is ook betekenisvolle verskille getoon in persoonlike en werksuitbranding tussen die intervensie en die kontrole groepe. Alhoewel nie betekenisvol nie, het daar „n duidelike vermindering in die vlakke van angs en kliënt-ooreising (werk met kinders), voorgekom in die intervensie-groep. Die kontrole groep het geen betekenisvolle verbetering getoon met betrekking tot enige van die meet-instrumente nie, en in sommige gevalle het die vlakke van uitbranding toegeneem. Kwalitatiewe data in die vorm van die globale analise van fokusgroep-onderhoude het insigte verskaf rakende die ervaring van die deelnemers, en hul kontekste van onderrig. Onderwysers het fisiese (n=29), intellektuele (“mental”) (n=17) en spirituele aktiwiteite (n=15) gebruik, om werk-en persoonlike stressors te hanteer en vele opvoeders het (n=19) negatiewe hanteringmeganismes gebruik. Individuele lyn-sketse, „n collage/plakskildery van uitlopers en geheue-kaarte, tesame met foto-weergawes van die deelnemers het die konteks en belewings van die Capacitar werkwinkels gekenmerk. As gevolg van die blootstelling aan die transpersoonlike gebruike was dit in die eerste plek vir die MIV/Vigs onderwysers moontlik om self innerlike genesing te ervaar, en ook om hul familie, die leerders en die gemeenskap te bemagtig met die aangebode toerusting. Sestien tema‟s is geïdentifiseer met die kwalitatiewe studie: Verhoogde bewustheid; persoonlike bemagtiging; rol-bemagtiging as deernisvolle persoon; emosionele intelligensie; gefokusde belewing (“mindfulness”); sin vir koherensie; die verwerking van traumatiese pyn; multi-kulturalisme; lighartigheid; onderlinge verbondenheid; mededeelsaamheid; vergewing; holistiese, regterbrein-genesing; veranderde breinpatrone; liggaam-siel-gees integrasie en die herstel van heelheid. Die resultate van beide die kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe benadering het getoon dat transpersoonlike sielkundige tegnieke uitbranding bekamp onder onderwysers wat as MIV/Vigs ko-ordineerders werk in die suidelike metropool, Wes-Kaap departement van onderwys, Mitchells Plain, Kaapstad. Aanbevelings word aangebied in die lig van die bevindings, asook die beperkings van die studie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2632
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