Now showing items 1-10 of 38
Evaluating the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to estimate HIV incidence among adults in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa
Serological assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence are prone to misclassification, limiting the accuracy of the incidence estimate. Adjustment factors have been developed and recommended for estimating assay-based HIV-1 ...
The potential to transmit Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a South African tertiary teaching hospital.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of nosocomial transmission by confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in a high TB/HIV incidence environment. METHODS: Between November 2006 and April 2007, we carried out a cross-sectional ...
Interferon-gamma release assays for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with cancer
SETTING: The paediatric oncology unit at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and two commercial interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for the ...
Early mortality and loss to follow-up in HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa
Background: Many HIV-infected children in Southern Africa have been started on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but loss to follow up (LTFU) can be substantial. We analyzed mortality in children retained in care and in all ...
Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plasma concentrations in children receiving tuberculosis chemotherapy including isoniazid
Aim: Little is known about pyridoxine nutriture of children treated with isoniazid (INH) regimens. This study documents plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentrations in children, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, ...
Prioritising prevention strategies for patients in antiretroviral treatment programmes in resource-limited settings
Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) offers opportunities to strengthen HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. We invited 27 ART programmes from urban settings in Africa, Asia and South America to participate ...
Temporal changes in programme outcomes among adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy across South Africa, 2002-2007
Objective: Little is known about the temporal impact of the rapid scale-up of large antiretroviral therapy (ART) services on programme outcomes. We describe patient outcomes [mortality, loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) and retention] ...
High heritability of antimycobacterial immunity in an area of hyperendemicity for tuberculosis disease
Human antimycobacterial immunity is a critical component of tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis that is often used to infer the presence of TB infection. We report high heritability (>50%) for in vitro secretion of tumor ...
Comparison of two active case-finding strategies for community-based diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive tuberculosis and control of infectious tuberculosis in Harare, Zimbabwe (DETECTB): A cluster-randomised trial
Background Control of tuberculosis in settings with high HIV prevalence is a pressing public health priority. We tested two active case-finding strategies to target long periods of infectiousness before diagnosis, which ...
Tuberculosis in women and children
[No abstract available]