Tourism development and community response : the case of the Inhambane Coastal Zone, Mozambique

Nhantumbo, Emídio Samuel (2009-12)

Thesis (MA (Geography and Environmental Studies))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Tourism development is a complex process which many researchers have attempted to understand from various social science perspectives. This study adopts a geography approach to analyse tourism development in the Inhambane Coastal Zone (ICZ) by using the Miossec (1976) and the Butler (1980) models as basic frameworks for analyses. Although both models were found to be useful, they require more accurate data than what was generally available for the ICZ. Before the country’s independence in 1975, Mozambique was considered one of many premier tourism destinations in Southern Africa and the tourism sector had played an important role in the economy of the country. The 16 years period of internal conflict (1976- 1992) resulted in a rapid decline in the performance of the sector. Since the end of the armed conflict in 1992 and the democratic transition, a slow recovery of the tourism sector in Mozambique has set in. Tourism facilities for accommodation and leisure activities have increased considerably over the last ten years, despite the absence of any integrated tourism planning. In this study questionnaire surveys of tourist establishment representatives and local residents as well as focus group discussions and interviews were conducted to acquire primary data to analyse the evolution of the ICZ as a tourist destination during the period 1992 to 2008. In addition, secondary sources such as reports, tourism plans, tourism statistics and maps of the study area were used. It was found that tourism is developing slowly in the ICZ and the opening up (or rediscovering) of the zone as a destination remains limited due to the slow development of infrastructure in general. The tourism nodes are in different stages of their destination life cycle and the local residents living in the seven communities react differently toward tourism development. The ICZ has not progressed further than phase two in Miossec’s model. The Miossec model was found a suitable tool for analysing tourism development in the ICZ but it remains a challenge to identify both the evolutionary stage of the ICZ as a destination and the stage of each tourism node. The study also found that local residents in the ICZ expressed positive views about tourism development but they are still not satisfied with the current benefits they acquire from the current development status of tourism in the zone.

AFRIKAANS SUMMARY: Baie navorsers het reeds gepoog om die komplekse proses van toerisme-ontwikkeling vanuit verskeie sosiaal-wetenskaplike benaderings te verstaan. Hierdie studie volg ʼn geografiese benadering ten einde toerisme-ontwikkeling in die Inhambane Kussone (ICZ) met behulp van die Miossec (1976) en Butler (1980) modelle as basiese raamwerke te analiseer. Alhoewel beide modelle as bruikbaar bevind is, benodig hierdie modelle meer akkurate data as wat algemeen vir die ICZ beskikbaar is. Voor die land se onafhanklikheid in 1975, was Mosambiek gereken as een van vele vername toerisme bestemmings in Suidelike Afrika en die toerisme sektor het ʼn belangrike rol in die ekonomie van die land gespeel. Die 16 jare lange interne konflik (1976-1992) het tot ʼn snelle agteruitgang van die sektor se prestasie gelei. Sedert die einde van die gewapende konflik in 1992 en die oorgang na ʼn demokrasie, het die toerisme sektor in Mosambiek ʼn stadige herstel beleef. Toerisme fasiliteite vir akkommodasie en ontspanningsaktiwiteite het, ten spyte van die afwesigheid van geïntegreerde toerisme beplanning, aansienlik toegeneem. In hierdie studie is daar deur middel van ‘n vraelysopname aan verteenwoordigers van toerisme verwante besighede en plaaslike inwoners, asook fokus-groep besprekings primêre data in gesamel ten einde die evolusie van die ICZ as toeriste bestemming gedurende die tydperk vanaf 1992 tot 2008 te analiseer. Daarbenewens is sekondêre bronne soos verslae, toerisme planne, toerisme statistieke en kaarte van die studiegebied gebruik Daar is bevind dat toerisme in die ICZ stadig ontwikel en dat die herontdekking van die sone as bestemming beperk bly as gevolg van die stadige ontwikkeling van die infrastruktuur in die algemeen. Die toerisme nodusse is in verskillende stadia van hulle individuele bestemmingsiklusse, en die plaaslike inwoners in die sewe gemeenskappe reageer verskillend teenoor toerisme ontwikkeling. Die ICZ het nie verder as fase twee van die Miossec model gevorder het nie. Daar is ook vasgestel dat die Miosec model ʼn gepaste instrument is vir die analise van toerisme ontwikkeling in die ICZ, maar dit bly ʼn uitdaging om die evolusionêre stadium van die ICZ as ‘n bestemming in geheel asook die stadium van elke toerisme-nodus te kan identifiseer. Die studie het ook bevind dat plaaslike inwoners van die ICZ positiewe menings oor toerisme ontwikkeling het, maar nog steeds nie tevrede is met die huidige voordele wat hulle uit die huidige ontwikkelingstatus van toerisme in die sone ontvang nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2458
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