'n Ondersoek na die integrasie en wisselwerking van die betekenisdraende elemente in poppeteater

Lessing, Petronella (2009-12)

Thesis (MDram (Drama))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In hierdie navorsing word gepoog om die betekenisdraende elemente van poppeteater, naamlik beweging, klank en ontwerp van naderby te ondersoek om vas te stel in watter mate al drie elemente onmisbaar is al dan nie en hoe hierdie elemente op mekaar inspeel. Die semiotiek van beide teater en poppeteater word as agtergrond en teoretiese basis vir die ondersoek bespreek. Binne hierdie elemente word verskillende kernaspekte ondersoek waaronder distorsie, oordrywing en die dubbele aard van die toneelpop as lewelose objek met ‘n verbeelde lewe. In hierdie deel van die studie word daar ook na verskillende soorte tekens gekyk, naamlik die indeks, die simbool en die ikoon. Daar word bevind dat hierdie tekens saam ‘n dubbele verskuiwing in doel kan ondergaan naamlik van teken na verwysde, en van verwysde na nuwe tekens. Hierdie verskuiwings vind in die teater, sowel as poppeteater plaas. Ontwerp, beweging en klank word afsonderlik bespreek om die aard, rol en moontlike dominansie van elkeen te bepaal. Poppeteater maak staat op die gehoor se verbeelding en gewilligheid om die toneelpop ‘n verbeelde vorm van lewe te gee. Díe siening van die toneelpop, as beide lewelose voorwerp en ‘n verbeelde vorm van lewe, staan bekend as dubbele visie. Dubbele visie kan egter nie alleen binne die poppeteater funksioneer nie, en die verskillende elemente moet saam met die gehoor se dubbele visie ingespan word om die boodskap van die poppespel oor te dra. Beweging verlewendig die toneelpop deurdat dit die illusie van lewe en die sogenaamde dubbele visie ondersteun. Verskillende toneelpoppe word verskillend beheer en geartikuleer, elk met sy eie betekenisse wat hy deur middel van beweging oordra. Daar is bevind dat klank die enigste element is waarmee weggedoen kan word in ‘n toneelpopproduksie. Terselfdertyd kan dit ook nie afsonderlik van beweging en ontwerp funksioneer nie. Wanneer klank wel gebruik word, funksioneer die hoofveranderlike kenmerke van klank soos toonhoogte, volume, tempo, infleksie, uitspraak en ritme in die oordraging van die boodskap. Die navorsing toon dat toneelpoppe nie gebonde aan realiteit is nie, en as gevolg hiervan kan die ontwerper die toneelpop maak sonder dat dit realisties hoef te wees. Ontwerp as ‘n element bepaal ook die kwaliteit en kwantiteit van toneelpoppe, sowel as die aanwending van ander ontwerp-elemente soos kleur, tekstuur, materiaal en die grootte van die toneelpop. Poppeteater is nooit ’n blote nabootsing van ’n mens of dier nie. Poppeteater kan daarom in nabootsende en konseptuele poppeteater verdeel word. Verwringing kom in beide nabootsende en konseptuele poppeteatervorme voor, hoewel tot ‘n mindere mate in nabootsende poppeteater. In konseptuele poppeteater word daar op die gehoor gesteun om die tekens wat dit ontvang korrek te interpreteer. Die betekenisdraende elemente werk saam om die boodskap suksesvol oor te dra. Klank en beweging werk saam om karakterisering te skep; so ook klank en ontwerp. Elemente kan wel afwisselend gebruik word. Die samewerking tussen beweging en ontwerp lei tot uitvoerbare beweging. Alhoewel daar met klank as ‘n element weggedoen kan word, is dit dikwels nie ideaal nie.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to closely examine the meaning-bearing elements of puppet theatre, namely movement, sound and design to determine to what extent all three is indispensable to the puppet theatre or not, and how elements work together. The semiotics of both theatre and puppet theatre is discussed as a background and a theoretical basis for the study. Within these elements different key elements are examined, such as distortion, over-exaggeration and the double nature of the puppet as a lifeless object with an imagined life. In this part of the study different types of signs, namely the index, symbol and icon are looked at. It is found that these signs can undergo a double shift in purpose, namely from signs to referred and from referred back to signs. These shifts occur in both theatre and puppet theatre. Design, movement and sound are separately discussed to determine the nature, role and possible domination of each. Puppet theatre relies on the audience’s imagination and willingness to give the puppet an imagined form of life. Seeing the puppet as both a lifeless object and an imagined form of life is known as double vision. Double vision cannot function alone within the puppet theatre and the different elements have to work with the audience’s double vision to convey the message of the performance. Movement enlivens the puppet by supporting its illusion of life and so-called double vision. Different puppets are differently manipulated and articulated, each with its own meaning, conveyed by the movement. It is found that sound is the only element that can be disregarded in a puppetry production. At the same time it cannot function separately from design and movement. When sound is used, the main variables of sound like pitch, volume, speed, inflection, pronunciation and rhythm functions in conveying the message of the production. The research shows that puppets are not bound to reality and thus the designer can make the puppet without it having to be realistic. Design as an element also determines the quality and quantity of the puppets, as well as other design elements such as colour, texture, material and the size of the puppet. Puppetry is never a mere imitation of a human or an animal. Puppetry can therefore be divided into imitative and conceptual puppetry. Distortion is seen in both imitative and conceptual puppetry, although less so in imitative puppetry. In conceptual puppetry the audience is relied upon to interpret the signs that it receives correctly. The meaning-bearing elements work together to convey the message successfully. Sound and movement work together to create characterisation, as does sound and design. Elements can also be used alternatively. The co-operation between movement and design leads to practicable movement. Although sound as an element can be done away with, it is often not ideal.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2453
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