Application of comprehensive 2-dimensional liquid chromatography for the analysis of complex phenolic fractions

Kalili, Kathithileni Martha (2009-12)

Thesis (MSc (Chemistry and Polymer Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The separation of apple, cocoa and green tea phenolic compounds by comprehensive 2-dimensional liquid chromatography (2-D-LC) has been studied. In the first dimension, phenolic compounds were separated according to polarity by hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) on a diol stationary phase with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile, methanol, acetic acid and water. Gradient reversed-phase (RP) LC using a C18 column with fluorescence detection was employed in the second dimension to separate compounds according to hydrophobicity. Compounds were identified using negative electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled to both HILIC and RP separations. The coupling of HILIC and RP separations proved to be especially beneficial since this provided simultaneous information on both the polarity and hydrophobicity of phenolics. The low degree of correlation (r2 < 0.21) between the two LC modes afforded peak capacities in excess of 3000 for the off-line method. An on-line method was also developed utilizing a short, small particle-packed column to provide fast separation in the second dimension. A 1 mm i.d. column was used in the first dimension for the on-line system to reduce injection volumes onto the second dimension column. A significantly lower practical peak capacity was measured for the on-line system, due largely to the reduction in second dimension peak capacity. On the other hand, analysis could be performed in an automated fashion using the online system reducing the risk of sample alteration and guaranteeing better operation reliability and reproducibility. Especially the off-line comprehensive HILIC × RP-LC method developed demonstrated its utility in the analysis of various groups of phenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, flavonols and flavonol conjugates in a variety of natural products.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die skeiding van fenoliese komponente in appel, kakao en groen tee is deur middel van ‘comprehensive’ 2-dimensionele vloeistof chromatografie (2-D-LC) bestudeer. Hidrofiliese interaksie chromatografie (HILIC) is gebruik om die fenoliese komponente in die eerste dimensie te skei op grond van polariteit, deur gebruik te maak van ‘n diol stationêre fase en mobiele fase bestaande uit asetonitriel, metanol, asynsuur en water. ‘n Gradiënt omgekeerde fase (RP) LC analisie op ‘n C18 kolom met fluorosensie deteksie is in die tweede dimensie gebruik om fenole volgens hidrofobisiteit te skei. Negatiewe elektrosproei-ionisasie massa spektometrie (ESIMS) gekoppel aan HILIC en RP skeidings is gebruik vir identifikasie van fenole. Die koppeling van HILIC en RP skeidings veral voordelig deurdat dit gelyktydige informasie verskaf het oor die polariteit sowel as die hidrofobisiteit van die fenoliese komponente. Die lae graad van korrelasie (r2 < 0.21) tussen die twee LC metodes was verantwoordelik vir piek kapasiteite bo 3000 vir die af-lyn metode. ‘n Aanlyn metode was ontwikkel deur gebruik te maak van ‘n kort, klein partikel gepakte kolom om vinnige skeiding in die tweede dimensie te verseker. 1 mm i.d. kolom was gebruik in die eerste dimensie vir die aanlyn sisteem om die inspuit volume op die tweede dimensie kolom te verminder. Aansienlike laer praktiese piek kapasiteit was gemeet vir die aanlyn sisteem, grootliks toegeskryf aan die reduksie in die tweede dimensie piek kapasitiet. Aan die ander kant, analise kan geoutomatiseerd uitgevoer word deur gebruik te maak van die aanlyn sisteem, wat monster alterasie, beter betroubaarheid en reproduseerbaarhied verseker. Veral die ontwikkelde af-lyn ‘comprehensive’ HILIC × RP-LC metode toon demonstreerbare voordele vir die analiese van verskeie groepe fenoliese komponente, insluitende proantosianiede, fenoliese sure, flavonole en gekonjugeerde flavonole in ‘n verskeidenheid natuurlike produkte.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/2420
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