Validation of the Arabic version of the Oswestry Disability Index developed in Tunisia for low back pain patients in the UAE
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The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in United Arab Emirates (UAE) is estimated to be about 57% in males and 64% in females. Low back pain is commonly treated by primary care physicians and physiotherapists in the UAE. are increasingly used for clinical assessment, to demonstrate and reflect on the effectiveness of an intervention. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is Self-reported outcome measure that widely used and recommended for LBP. ODI Arabic version was developed and validated in women population. To date no UAE Arabic version of the ODI exists which has been cross-culturally adapted, validated and published in the peer-reviewed literature. . Objective The objectives are, to cross-culturally adapt the Arabic version of the ODI developed in Tunisia to devise a pre-final ODI-UAE Arabic version; to pre-test the pre-final ODI-UAE Arabic version in a target group of patients to devise the final ODI-UAE Arabic version; and to determine the reliability and construct validity of the final ODI-UAE Arabic version. Study design Culture adaptation, reliability and validity testing. Methodology The cross culture adaptation of the ODI Arabic version developed in Tunisia was performed in accordance with the published guidelines. For reliability 108 clients of UAE nationals with LBP were consecutively selected and completed the final ODI-UAE Arabic version, at baseline and 48 hours, and test–retest reliability and internal consistency were calculated. For validity 108 completed the final ODI-UAE Arabic version, VAS, and the Squat test at baseline and 4 weeks follow up; construct validity, items frequency response, response to change and floor and ceiling were evaluated. Results The ODI-UAE (9 questions) had high level of test–retest with ICC of 0.99; the mean at baseline and 48 hours was (0.68); Cronbach's alpha was 0.99. Strong positive correlation with VAS r =>0.70 (p = <0.01), and moderate inverse correlation between ODI and Squat r =>0.65 (p = <0.01).The results of the maximum frequency response were less than 80% for the entire 9 question. The effect size and the SRM of ODI-UAE, VAS and Squat test at baseline and 4 weeks were identical comparable the effect size, were 1.66, 1.85, and 1.59 respectively. ODI-UAE demonstrated absence of floor and ceiling effect; less than 15% of the respondents achieved the lowest or highest possible score respectively (0 -11.5) or (87-100%). Conclusion The ODI-UAE Arabic version is an easy to understand, reliable and valid condition-specific outcome measure for the measurement of the limitation of functional ability cause by LBP in the United Arab Emirates national population.