Microsatellite marker development and parentage assignment in Haliotis midae

Van den Berg, Nicol-Candice (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-03)

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The five leading abalone producers in South Africa have initiated a genetic enhancement program for Haliotis midae in a collaborative effort to improve economically valuable traits. Several independent objective-specific studies were initiated, including the establishment of a Performance Recording Scheme (PRS), utilised in this study, and necessary to monitor the ongoing performance of individuals as the move from mass-selection to marker assisted selection (MAS) is implemented. The primary objective of this study was parentage assignment of F1 offspring mass-selected for size at approximately one year and allocated to either a “faster” or a “slower” growth group. Nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype juveniles and potential parents, with assignment completed using CERVUS 2.0. Average growth results for Abagold and HIK were comparable for both growth groups. Slight environmental effects, although not statistically significant, were evident as growth advantages for juveniles within the faster growth group at two of the five locations and for juveniles within the slower growth group at one of the five rearing locations. Despite measures to standardise environmental influences, variables are difficult to control within the reality of a production environment; and potential genotype x environment interactions may require further investigation and factoring into future breeding programs. The additional costs associated with MAS often make the technology prohibitive to most aquaculture operations, despite the significant genetic gains to be realised from its implementation. Cost-optimising routine processes such as DNA extractions may be one approach to reduce these additional costs. Chelex®100 appears to be a suitable alternative to the CTAB method – being quick and cost-effective to perform. Applying this method in combination with the high throughput of a robotic platform warrants further evaluation. For the microsatellite development, 50% of positive recombinant clones contained inserts. Sequencing of these clones produced 16% perfect repeats and 47% imperfect repeats for which 52 primer sets were designed and tested. In total, 31 polymorphic microsatellite loci of different motifs and composition were developed. Sixty-one percent of sequenced clones were deemed redundant and pre-screening for both uniqueness and the presence of microsatellites would reduce unnecessary sequencing thus improving the efficiency of the FIASCO method and reducing costs. Nine loci were selected for parentage assignments. Null alleles were present for all the selected markers; however, frequencies were below the critical level of 5%. Parentage yielded 91% and 90% successful assignment for Abagold and HIK respectively; however, observations indicate that a measure of relatedness may exist between breeders. Recommendations with regards to future family breeding include, for both Abagold and HIK, retaining selected breeders based on their respective contributions to the F1 progeny while reassessing the potential of remaining breeding stock under more controlled breeding conditions. No obvious trends were observed for growth with most individuals producing both faster and slower growing offspring. Juveniles will be reassessed at two years to determine whether the size advantage or disadvantages were maintained and to ascertain whether growth advantages/disadvantages may be gender specific.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die vyf mees toonaangewende perlemoen produseerders in Suid Afrika het „n genetiese verbeteringsprogram vir Haliotis midae geinisieer in „n gesamentlike poging om ekonomiese belangrike eienskappe te verbeter. Verskeie onafhanklike fokus-spesifieke studies is geinisieer, insluitend die totstandkoming van „n groeiprestasie aantekenstelsel, soos gebruik in hierdie studie, en wat noodsaaklik is om die aaneenlopende prestasie van individue te moniteer soos daar beweeg word van massa seleksie tot merker bemiddelde seleksie. Die primêre fokus van hierdie studie was die ouerskapsbepaling van F1 nageslag wat massa geselekteer is op ouderdom 1 jaar vir grootte en as of “vinniger” of “stadiger” groeiers geklassifiseer is. Nege mikrosatelliet merkers is gebruik om jong perlemoen individue en moontlike ouers te genotipeer, met die ouerskapstoekenning bereken deur CERVUS 2.0. Groei resultate vir Abagold en HIK was vergelykbaar vir beide groei groepe op drie van die lokaliteite. Geringe omgewingseffekte, alhoewel nie statisties betekenisvol nie, was sigbaar as „n groei voordeel vir jong individue op twee van die vyf lokaliteite. Ongeag maatstawe om omgewingsinvloede te standardiseer, is varieerbares moeilik om te beheer in die produksie omgewing en genotipe x omgewings interaksies mag verdere navorsing vereis en behoort in ag geneem te word in toekomstige telingsprogramme. Die onkoste wat met merker bemiddelde seleksie geassosieer word, maak die tegniek soms onaantreklik vir die meeste akwakultuur operasies; nie teen staande die genetiese voordele wat die gebruik daarvan veroorsaak. Die koste-optimiseering van roetine prosesse, soos byvoorbeeld, DNA ekstraksies, is dalk een aanslag om die addisionele koste te verminder. Chelex®100 blyk „n geskikte alternatief tot die CTAB metode te wees – die tegniek is vinnig en koste-effektief om uit te voer. Die gebruik van hierdie metode in kombinasie met die hoë deurvloei van ‟n robotiese sisteem behoort verder ondersoek te word. Vir die mikrosatelliet ontwikkeling het slegs 50% van die positiewe rekombinante klone invoegings bevat. Nukleotiedvolgorde bepaling van hierdie klone het 16% perfekte herhalings en 47% onderbroke herhalings bevat waaruit 52 inleierstelle ontwikkel en getoets is. In totaal is 31 polimorfiese mikrosatelliet loki van verskillende motiewe en samestelling ontwikkel. Een-en-sestig persent van die volgorde bepaalde klone is oortollig geag en vooraf sifting vir beide uniekheid en die teenwoordigheid van mikrosatelliete sal onnodige volgorde bepaling verhoed, die effektiwiteit van die FIASCO tegniek verhoog sowel as addisionele koste verminder. Nege loki is geselekteer vir ouerskapsbepaling. Nul allele was teenwoordig vir al die geselekteerde merkers, maar die frekwensies was egter laer as die 5% kritieke waarde. Ouerskap is 91% en 90% suksesvol bepaal vir Abagold en HIK onderskeidelik. Waarnemings dui egter daarop dat daar verwantskappe mag wees tussen van die broeidiere. Voorstelle in terme van toekomstige familie teling sluit is, vir beide Abagold en HIK, om geselekteerde broei diere te behou gebaseer op hulle onderskeie bydraes tot die F1 nageslag asook die herevaluaring van die potensiaal van die oorblywende broei diere onder meer beheerde teling toestande. Geen voor-die-handliggende tendense is waargeneem vir groei nie met die meeste individue wat beide vinniger en stadiger groeiende nageslag geproduseer het. Jong individue moet geherevalueer word op tweejarige ouderdom om te bepaal of die groei voordeel of nadele behou is en om te bepaal om groei voordele/nadele geslagspesifiek is.

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