Investigations of Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) genes in hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) founder families

Cloete, Ruben Earl Ashley (2008-03)

Thesis (MScMed)--Stellenbosch University, 2008.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), an autosomal dominant disorder, hypertrophy is variable within and between families carrying the same causal mutation, suggesting a role for modifier genes. Associations between left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular pressure overload suggested that sequence variants in genes involved in the Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) may act as hypertrophy modifiers in HCM, but some of these studies may have been confounded by, amongst other things, lack of adjustment for hypertrophy covariates. To investigate this hypothesis, twenty one polymorphic loci spread across six genes (ACE1, AGT, AGTR1, CYP11B2, CMA and ACE2) of the RAAS were genotyped in 353 subjects from 22 South African HCM-families, in which founder mutations segregate. Genotypes were compared to 17 echocardiographically-derived hypertrophic indices of left ventricular wall thickness at 16 segments covering three longitudinal levels. Family-based association was performed by quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing (QTDT), and mixed effects models to analyse the X-linked gene ACE2, with concurrent adjustment for hypertrophy covariates (age, sex, systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, body surface area, heart rate and mutation status). Strong evidence of linkage in the absence of association was detected between polymorphisms at ACE1 and posterior and anterior wall thickness (PW and AW, respectively) at the papillary muscle level (pap) and apex level (apx). In single-locus analysis, statistically significant associations were generated between the CYP11B2 rs3097 polymorphism and PW at the mitral valve level (mit) and both PWpap and inferior wall thickness (IW)pap. Statistically significant associations were generated at three AGTR1 polymorphisms, namely, between rs2640539 and AWmit, rs 3772627 and anterior interventricular septum thickness at pap and rs5182 and both IWpap and AWapx. Furthermore, mixed effects model detected statistically significant association between the ACE2 rs879922 polymorphism and both posterior interventricular septum thickness and lateral wall thickness at mit in females only. These data indicate a role for RAAS gene variants, independent of hypertrophy covariates, in modifying the phenotypic expression of hypertrophy in HCM-affected individuals.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hipertrofiese kardiomiopatie (HCM), ‘n autosomale dominante afwyking, toon hoogs variërende hipertrofie binne en tussen families wat dieselfde siekte-veroorsakende mutasie het, hierdie dui op die moontlike betrokkenheid van geassosieerde modifiserende gene. Assosiasies tussen linker ventrikulêre hipertrofie en linker ventrikulêre druk-oorlading stel voor dat volgorde variasies in gene betrokke in die Renin-Angiotensin Aldosteroon Sisteem (RAAS) mag optree as hipertrofie modifiseerders in HCM. Sommige van hierdie soort studies is egter beperk omdat hulle nie gekompenseer het vir kovariante van hipertrofie nie. Om hierdie hipotese te ondersoek, is die genotipe bepaal by een-en-twintig polimorfiese lokusse, verspreid regoor ses RAAS gene (ACE1, AGT, AGTR1, CYP11B2, CMA and ACE2), in 353 kandidate vanuit 22 Suid-Afrikaanse HCM-families in wie stigter mutasies segregeer. Genotipes was vergelyk met 17 eggokardiografies afgeleide hipertrofiese indekse van linker ventrikulêre wanddikte by 16 segmente wat oor drie longitudinale vlakke strek. Familie-gebaseerde assosiasies was bestudeer deur kwantitatiewe transmissie disequilibrium toetsing (QTDT) en gemengde effek modelle om die X-gekoppelde geen ACE2 te analiseer, met gelyktydige kompensasie vir hipertrofie kovariate (ouderdom, geslag, sistoliese bloed druk (BP), diastoliese BP, liggaamsoppervlak area, hartritme en mutasie-status). Sterk indikasies van koppeling in die afwesigheid van assosiasie is waargeneem tussen ACE1 lokusse en posterior wanddikte (PW) asook anterior wanddikte (AW) by die papillêre spier vlak (pap) en die apeks vlak (apx). In enkel-lokus analises is statisties-betekenisvolle assosiasies gevind tussen die CYP11B2 rs3097 polimorfisme en PW by die mitraalklep vlak (mit) en beide die PWpap en inferior wanddikte (IW)pap. Statisties-betekenisvolle assosiasies was verder gevind by drie AGTR1 polimorfismes, naamlik, tussen rs2640539 polimorfisme en AWmit, rs3772627 en die anterior interventrikulêre septumdikte (aIVS) by die pap en rs5182 by beide die IWpap en AWapx. Gemengde-effek modelle het verder assosiasies aangetoon tussen die ACE2 rs879922 polimorfisme en die posterior interventrikulêre septumdikte en die laterale wanddikte by die mit, slegs in vrouens. Hierdie data dui op ‘n kovariaat-onafhanklike rol vir RAAS genetiese variante in die modifisering van die fenotipiese uitdrukking van hipertrofie in HCM-geaffekteerde individue.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/21880
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