Novel palladium (II) complexes belonging to a family of potential catalytic precursors

Blewett, Gavin (2006-12)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2001.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study comprises the preparation and characterization of various novel organometallic complexes of palladium(ll) which contain symmetric and unsymmetric (heteroatom-containing) r..-dicarbonyl-type ligands, T]3-heteroallyl ligands and T]3-coordinated trimethylsilyl-containing ligands. With the ultimate objective of preparing potential catalytic precursors similar to known catalytic precursors which exhibit hemilabile activity, the main goals of this study were the following: - • Investigate the coordination mode of the aforementioned ligand-types to the palladium of the starting compound, trans-[Pd(CeHs)CI{P(CeHshhl (1), by physical measurements. • Carry out single crystal structure determinations where possible. • Investigate the influence of the properties of the ligands on the stability of the prepared complexes. • Investigate the existence of hemilability (if any) in the prepared complex. The deprotonated symmetric and unsymmetric f!,-dicarbonyl-type ligands readily bind to the palladium of the starting compound in a bidentate fashion through the oxygens by displacing a triphenylphosphine group and producing easily removable sodium chloride. These complexes show that a negative charge can be accommodated in a delocalized fashion by the -S=O and - P=O groups of these acac--type ligands in a similar manner to the carbonyl groups of acetylacetonate. However, no evidence of hemilabile activity was found in this series of complexes. In a similar fashion, the deprotonated T]3-heteroallyl ligands, L = [PhzPS£], [PhCOz-], [PhC{NSi(CH3hhl [(Ph)zP{NSi(CH3hh-], were linked to palladium in the same starting complex, in T]3-fashion by triphenylphosphine substitution. No evidence of hemilabilty was evident in this series of complexes, but when L = [PhzPSz-], an exchange of the coordinated triphenylphosphine group with the free triphenylphosphine group was observed in the reaction mixture. Finally, the preparation, isolation and spectroscopic characterization of several T\3-allyl paliadium(lI) complexes with ligands of the type R-TeCH2CH2CQQCH3, (R = isopropyl, t-butyl ,ethyl) were attempted with the compound bis-( T\3-allyl )-di-~ -iodo-dipalladium( II), [T\3 -( CH2CHCH2J2Pd212J, which had also now been crystallographically characterized. Chelate formation by TeAQ coordination seemed possible by halide precipitation with silver tetrafluoroborate. Unfortunately the resulting compounds were too unstable to be isolated in the pure form for characterization.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie behels die bereiding en karakterisering van verskeie nuwe palladium(lI) organometaalkomplekse met inbegrip van simmetriese en onsimmetriese (heteroatoom bevattende) ~-dikarboniel-tipe ligande, 113- heteroallielligande en 113_gekoordineerdetrimetielsiliel bevattende ligande. Met die beoogde einddoel die bereiding van potensiele katalitiese voorgangers soortgelyk aan bekende katalitiese voorgangers met hemilabiele aktiviteit, sluit die hoof mikpunte van die studie die volgende in: - • 'n Ondersoek na koordinasie-wyse van die bogenoemde ligand tipes aan die palladium van die uitgangstof, trans-[Pd(C6Hs)CI{P(C6Hshhl (1), met behulp van fisiese bepalings. • Enkel kristal struktuur bepalings waar moontlike. • 'n Ondersoek na die invloed van die einskappe van die ligande op die stabilitiet van die komplekse. • 'n Ondersoek na die bestaan van hemilabiele aktiwiteit (indien enige) in die voorbereide complekse. Die gedeprotoneerde simmetriese en onsimmetriese ~-dikarboniel-tipe ligande het geredelik, bidentaat deur middel van die suurstowwe gebind aan die palladium van die uitgangstof deur die verplasing van die trifenielfosfien group en die vorming van verweiderbare natriumchloried. Hierdie komplekse dui aan dat 'n negatiewe lading wei geakkommodeer kan word deur delokalisasie by die -S=O- en -P=O-groepe van hierdie acac"-tipe Iigande, soortgelyk aan die karbonielgroep van asetielasetonaat. Geen hemilabiliteit is waargeneem in hierdie reeks komplekse nie. Die gedeprotoneerde 113-heteroalliel Iigande, L = [Ph2PS£), [PhCO£), [PhC{NSi(CH3h}£), [(PhhP{NSi(CH3hhl is op 'n soortgelyke wyse 113- gekoppel aan palladium van dieselfde uitgangstof met trifenielfosfien verplasing. Geen hemilabiliteit is waargeneem in hierdie reeks komplekse nie, maar wanneer L = [Ph2PS£], is 'n uitruiling van 'n gekoordineerde trifenielfosfien met 'n vrye trifenielfosfien in die reaksiemengsel waargeneem. Die bereiding, isolasie en spektroskopiese karakterisering van Tj3-alliel paliadium(lI) komplekse met ligande van die tipe R-TeCH2CH2COOCH3, (R = isopropiel, t-butiel ,etiel) is gepoog met die uitgangstof bis-(Tj3-alliel)-di-ll-iododipaliadium( II), [Tj3-(CH2CHCH2hPd2b], wat volledig gekarakteriseer was. Chelaat-vorming deur TeAO-koordinasie het moonlik blyk te wees deur halied presipitasie met behulp van AgBF4. Die komplekse is baie onstabiel en is dit gevolglik nie moontlik am die komplekse suiwer te isoleer en te karakteriseer nie.

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