Survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in the intestinal tract, their adhesion to epithelial cells and their ability to compete with pathogenic microorganisms

Botes, Marelize (2008-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2008.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Research on probiotics has increased over the past years, which led to commercialization of a number of probiotic supplements and functional foods. In vitro assays such as tolerance to acid and bile, adhesion to mucus and epithelial cells, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance tests are performed to screen lactic acid bacteria for probiotic properties. Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA produces an antimicrobial peptide (peptide ST4SA) with activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum 423 produces plantaricin 423, a typical class II bacteriocin, active against a number of Gram-positive bacteria. A gastro-intestinal model (GIM) simulating the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of infants, was developed to study the survival of E. mundtii ST4SA and L. plantarum 423 and evaluate them as possible probiotics. Growth of the two strains in the GIM was compared to the growth of commercially available probiotics. Infant milk formulations were used as growth medium. Changes in pH, the addition of bile salt and pancreatic juice, and intestinal flow rates were controlled by peristaltic pumps linked to a computer with specifically designed software. Strain ST4SA was sensitive to low pH and high concentrations of bile salts. Growth of strain ST4SA was repressed in the first part of the GIM, however, the cells recovered in the ileum. Strain 423 was also sensitive to acidic conditions. However, the cells withstood the presence of bile and pancreatin in the first part of the GIT. Neither of the two strains displayed bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. Both strains were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cefadroxil, roxithromycin, meloxicam, doxycycline, erythromycin, novobiocin, rifampicin, tetracyclin, bacitracin, oflaxacin and cephazolin, anti-inflammatory drugs Na+- diklofenak and ibuprofen, and painkillers codeine terprim hydrate aminobenzoic acid, metamizole aspirin and paracetamol. Strain 423 was resistant to ciprofloxacin. Genes encoding cytolysin, non-cytolysin β-hemolysin and cell aggregation substances were detected on the genome of strain ST4SA but they were not expressed. L. plantarum 423 does not contain genes encoding gelatinase, cell aggregation, enterococcus surface protein, hemolysin, non-cytolysin β- hemolysin and enterococcus endocarditis antigen. Both strains inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes ScottA in the GIM. Survival of the strains improved when used in combination and compared well with the survival of commercially available probiotics. Adhesion to epithelial cells is an important prerequisite for bacterial colonization in the GIT. The adhesion of E. mundtii ST4SA and L. plantarum 423 was studied using Caco-2 (human colon carcinoma epithelial) cells. Both strains revealed good adhesion compared to other probiotic strains. No correlation was found between hydrophobicity, auto-aggregation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medicaments had a negative effect on adhesion. Different combinations of proteins were involved in the adhesion of E. mundtii ST4SA and L. plantarum 423 to Caco-2 cells. E. mundtii ST4SA, L. plantarum 423 and L. monocytogenes ScottA were stained with fluorescent dyes to visualize adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Adhesion of L. monocytogenes ScottA to Caco-2 cells was not reduced in the presence of strains ST4SA and 423. Cell-free culture supernatants of both strains inhibited the invasion of L. monocytogenes ScottA. The cell structure of Caco-2 cells changed in the presence of L. monocytogenes ScottA. Strains ST4SA and 423 protected Caco-2 cells from deforming.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Navorsing op probiotika het die afgelope tyd drasties toegeneem en aanleiding gegee tot die kommersialisering van ‘n groot hoeveelheid probiotiese supplemente en funksionele voedselsoorte. In vitro studies, soos bv. weerstand teen suur en gal, vashegting aan mukus en epiteelselle, antimikrobiese aktiwiteit en weerstand teen antibiotika word uitgevoer om te bepaal of melksuurbakteriëe aan probiotiese standaarde voldoen. Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA produseer ’n peptied met antimikrobiese werking teen Grampositiewe en Gram-negatiewe bakteriëe. Lactobacillus plantarum 423 produseer ‘n tipiese klas II bakteriosien, plantarisien 423, met aktiwiteit teen sekere Gram-positiewe bakteriëe. ’n Gastro-intestinale model (GIM) wat die spysverteringskanaal (SVK) van babas simuleer, is ontwikkel om die oorlewing van E. mundtii ST4SA en L. plantarum 423 te bepaal en hul eienskappe met dié van kommersiële probiotiese stamme te vergelyk. Babamelk formules is as groeimedium gebruik. Verandering in pH, byvoeging van galsoute en pankreassappe, en intestinale vloei is met behulp van peristaltiese pompe gereguleer wat seine vanaf ‘n spesiaal ontwikkelde rekenaarprogram ontvang. E. mundtii ST4SA was sensitief vir lae pH en hoë galsoutkonsentrasies en groei is in die eerste deel van die GIM onderdruk. Selgetalle het wel in die ileum herstel. Stam 423 was ook sensitief vir lae pH, maar het die galsout- en pankreatienvlakke in die laer deel van die SVK weerstaan. Geen galsout-hidrolase aktiwiteit is by enige van die twee stamme gevind nie. Beide stamme het weerstand getoon teen amoksillien, ampisillien, chloramfenikol, cefadroksiel, roksitromisien, meloksikam, doksisiklien, eritromisien, novobiosien, rifampisien, tetrasiklien, basitrasien, oflaksasien, kefazolien, die anti-inflammatoriese medikamente Na+-diklofenak en ibuprofen, en die pynstillers kodeïenterprimhidraataminobensoësuur, metamisoolaspirien en parasetamol. L. plantarum 423 was bestand teen ciprofloksasien. Gene wat kodeer vir sitolisien, nie-sitolisien β-hemolisien III en sel-aggregasie is op die genoom van E. mundtii ST4SA gevind, maar word nie uitgedruk nie. L. plantarum 423 besit nie die gene wat vir gelatinase, selaggregasie substansies, enterokokkus selwandproteïen, hemolise, nie-sitolisien β-hemolisien en enterokokkus endokarditis antigeen kodeer nie. Albei stamme inhibeer die groei van Listeria monocytogenes ScottA in die GIM. Die twee stamme in kombinasie het tot beter oorlewing in die GIM gelei. Stamme ST4SA en 423 vergelyk goed met kommersieël beskikbare probiotika. Vashegting van probiotiese stamme aan epiteelselle is belangrik vir kolonisering in die SVK. Vashegting van E. mundtii ST4SA en L. plantarum 423 is bestudeer deur van Caco-2 (kolon epiteel) selle van die mens gebruik te maak. Die aanhegting van beide stamme aan Caco-2 selle het goed vergelyk met kommersieël beskikbare probiotiese stamme. Geen korrelasie is gevind tussen hidrofobisiteit, aggregasie en vashegting aan Caco-2 selle nie. Antibiotika en antiinflammatoriese medikamente het ‘n negatiewe effek op vashegting gehad. Verskillende kombinasies van proteïene is betrokke in die vashegting van E. mundtii ST4SA en L. plantarum 423 aan Caco-2 selle. E. mundtii ST4SA, L. plantarum 423 en L. monocytogenes ScottA is met fluoreserende kleurstowwe gemerk om vashegting aan Caco-2 selle te monitor. Vashegting van L. monocytogenes ScottA aan Caco-2 selle is nie deur die teenwoordigheid van stamme ST4SA en 423 beïnvloed nie. Sel-vrye kultuursupernatante van beide stamme het die binnedring van L. monocytogenes ScottA verhoed. Die selstruktuur van Caco-2 selle het in die teenwoordigheid van L. monocytogenes ScottA van vorm verander. E. mundtii ST4SA en L. plantarum 423 het die Caco-2 selle teen vervorming beskerm.

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