Cooling and shipping studies on table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.)

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dc.contributor.advisor Huysamer, M.
dc.contributor.advisor Jacobs, G.
dc.contributor.author Ngcobo, Mduduzi E. K.
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Horticulture. en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-06-22T12:23:42Z
dc.date.available 2012-06-22T12:23:42Z
dc.date.issued 2008-03
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/21440
dc.description Thesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2008. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Fruit quality is the most important factor that determines prices for the fruit in the international markets. Although different consumers perceive quality differently there are quality variables that are always associated with poor quality by all consumers. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) these variables may include overall appearance, stem condition, SO2 damage, decay, berry browning and shatter. The presence of these quality defects negatively affects prices and most often results in quality claims. Cooling is the most widely used method to reduce the postharvest loss of fruit quality. In South Africa, most deciduous fruits including table grapes are forced air cooled to a statutory pulp temperature of –0.5°C prior to shipping in an effort to preserve quality, thus ensuring good market prices for the fruits. Despite these efforts, there are still quality claims from the markets and this reduces the returns to the growers. The objectives of this research were to: (i) see if cooling time can be reduced by cooling to higher pulp temperatures of 1.5°C and 3°C without causing quality losses, thus improving the throughput of the cold rooms; (ii) see if the problem of berry browning can be alleviated by cooling grapes to higher pulp temperature, and (iii) see whether pallet positioning in the cooling tunnels and reefer container affect quality. The trends showed better quality when ‘Victoria’ and ‘Regal Seedless’ were forced air cooled (FAC) to pulp temperatures of 1.5 °C and 3 °C as opposed to –0.5 °C. There were no economic losses associated with pre-cooling grapes to pulp temperatures of 1.5 °C and 3 °C. There were no significant differences in berry browning related to pre-cooling treatments. However, cooling time was reduced significantly. In most of the cooling tunnels and reefer containers used in this trial, grape quality results showed no significant differences between the positions in the stack and in reefer containers. However, in cases where there were significant differences, the middle and the rear positions showed better grape quality in terms of stem condition (dry and brown stems) than the front position (near fan) in both the pre-cooling stack and reefer containers. The trends showed that the front is cooler than the back of the pre-cooling stack. The pulp temperature differences between the front and rear positions in the reefer container were as high as 1.23 °C. The trends also showed that the bottom layers of the pallets were cooler than the top layers in the reefer container. FAC to 3°C resulted in a constant reduction in percentage electrolyte leakage after 4 weeks of storage at –0.5°C, while FAC to 1.5°C, -0.5°C and static room cooling (control) in some cases showed an initially low electrolyte leakage followed by an increase in leakage after 4 weeks of storage. FAC grapes to higher pulp temperatures of 3°C and 1.5°C could reduce the cooling time, thereby improving the throughput of cold rooms. There was no clear evidence to suggest that browning was due to pre-cooling practices. Both preharvest and postharvest conditions need to be further investigated to better understand the problems of browning in white table grapes. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vrugkwaliteit is ʼn kritiese faktor in die bepaling van pryse op die internasionale markte. Alhoewel daar variasie voorkom tussen verbruikers in wat vrugkwaliteit is, bly sekere aspekte altyd onveranderd. Ononderhandelbare kwaliteit aspekte in tafeldruiwe (Vitis vinifera L.) sluit die algemene voorkoms, toestand van die trosstingels, SO2 skade, bederf, korrel verbruining en los-korrels in. Indien enige van die kwaliteit-defekte voorkom het dit ʼn negatiewe impak op die prys en lei gewoonlik tot gehalte eise. Verkoeling word algemeen gebruik om die verlies van na-oes kwaliteit te verminder. Die meeste sagtevrugte geproduseer in Suid Afrika (insluitend tafeldruiwe) ondergaan geforseerde verkoeling tot ʼn statutêre pulptemperatuur van -0.5°C, voor verskeping. Ondanks hierdie maatreëls om hoë pryse te verseker, is daar steeds kwaliteiteise in die mark wat lei tot ‘n laer inkomste vir produsente. Die navorsing het dus ten doel gehad om : (i) te bepaal of die tyd van verkoeling verminder kan word, indien na hoër pulptemperature van 1.5°C en 3°C verkoel kan word, sonder ‘n verlies in kwaliteit en sodoende die deurvloeitempo van die koelkamers verhoog; (ii) om te bepaal of die voorkoms van korrelverbruining verlaag kan word indien tot hoër pulp-temperature verkoel word, en (iii) laastens om te bepaal of posisie van die palet in die verkoelingstonnel en verskepingshouer ʼn invloed het op vrugkwaliteit. Tendense toon dat ‘Victoria’ en ‘Regal Seedless’ kwaliteit beter was indien verkoel tot pulptemperature van 1.5°C en 3°C in vergelyking met -0.5°C. Daar was geen ekonomiese verliese waargeneem indien die hoër verkoelingstemperature gebruik is nie. Alhoewel daar geen betekenisvolle verskille in korrelverbruining voorgekom het tussen temperatuur behandelings nie is die verkoelingsperiode verkort. In die meeste van die verskepingshouers, asook in posisies tydens geforseerde verkoeling is daar geen betekenisvolle verskille waargeneem nie. In die gevalle waar daar egter wel betekenisvolle verskille voorgekom het, het die middel en agter posisies beter vrugkwaliteit gehad as die voorste posisie tydens verkoeling asook houerverskeping. Die palette aan die voorkant (naby die waaier) het as ʼn algemene tendens laer temperature as in die agterkant van die verkoelingstonnel. Verskille in pulptemperature tussen palette in die voor en agterkant van verskepingshouers was so hoog as 1.23°C. Die temperatuurdata het uitgewys dat die onderste laag kartonne neig om by ‘n laer temperatuur te wees as die boonste lae kartonne tydens houerverskeping. Geforseerde verkoeling teen 3°C het gelei tot ‘n afname in persentasie elektrolietlekkasie na 4 weke van verkoeling teen -0.5°C. Terselfdertyd het geforseerde verkoeling tot 1.5°C en -0.5°C asook statiese verkoeling (kontrole) in sekere gevalle gelei tot ‘n laer aanvanklike uitlek van elektrolietlekkasie, gevolg deur ʼn verhoging na 4 weke opberging. Geforseerde verkoeling van tafeldruiwe tot pulptemperature van 1.5°C en 3°C verkort die verkoelingstyd en verhoog dus die deurvloeitempo in die verkoelingskamers. Daar was gedurende die studie geen duidelike bewyse gevind dat korrelverbruining voorkom as gevolg van verkoelingspraktyke nie. Beide voor en na-oes praktyke sal verder ondersoek moet word om die invloed daarvan te bepaal op die verbruining van wit tafeldruiwe. af
dc.format.extent x, 140 leaves : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
dc.subject Table grapes -- Cooling en_ZA
dc.subject Table grapes -- Precooling en_ZA
dc.subject Table grapes -- Transportation en_ZA
dc.subject Table grapes -- Postharvest technology en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Horticulture en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Horticulture en_ZA
dc.title Cooling and shipping studies on table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University en_ZA


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