Microwave heating of multiphase materials : modelling and measurement

Louw, Willem J. (2005-12)

Thesis (MScIng)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Both coaxial probe and waveguide (WG) measurement systems for electric and magnetic material property extraction were investigated. These measurement techniques were used to determine electrical properties of an inhomogeneous rock sample in its solid and crushed states. A lumped element model of the probe was used and permittivity was determined by the inversion algorithm developed by Stuchly and Stuchly. To support this technique it was compared to a full wave inversion algorithm and referenced to properties of the same samples but determined by a resonant cavity technique. The Nicholson, Ross and Weir inversion algorithm was used to determine material properties from WG measurements. As a reference, the same techniques were applied to a well defined material. It was found that neither of the measurement techniques could measure low loss factors or conductive materials and literature values were used in these cases. Various simulation models of the multiphase ore in both its solid and crushed states are presented. These models were utilised in finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations of different microwave (MW) cavities. Simulation and experimental S-parameter comparisons are presented. The level of accuracy achieved varies as a function of the geometrical representation and material properties. After an S-parameter comparison with simulation results it was concluded that the electrical properties of both the solid and crushed rocks have been well determined for MW cavity design. Predicted and measured field distributions in cavities were also compared and it is shown that accurate models of multiphase materials become especially important in the determination of field distributions in and around different rock phases. Recommendations for the suggested material property determination and verification processes are presented. A specific application of this work is in the field of microwave assisted comminution.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Koaksiale probe en golfgeleier (WG) stelsels vir die bepaling van materiaal eienskappe (elektries en magneties) word gebruik met die doel om ’n nie-homogene rotsmonster te karakteriseer. Die ekstraksie algoritme van Stuchly en Stuchly word gebruik om die materiaal eienskappe te bepaal vanaf die gemete S11-parameter. Hierdie ekstraksie metode word vergelyk met ’n vol golf ekstraksie van permitiwiteit vanaf dieselfde gemete data. Beide die ekstraksie metodes word dan vergelyk met resonante holte meetings van dieselfde materiale. Die Nicholson, Ross en Weir ekstraksie algoritme word toegepas op meetings wat gedoen is deur die golfgeleier stelsel. As ’n verwysing word dieselfde tegnieke toegepas op ’n bekende materiaal en daar is gevind dit stem goed ooreen behalwe dat nie een van die twee meet tegnieke lae verlies faktore kan meet nie. Verder kan nie een van die twee sisteme geleidende materiale meet nie. Vir sulke gevalle is waardes nageslaan. Verskeie simulasiemodelle van die rots word voorgestel vir beide soliede en vergruisde monsters. Hierdie modelle word gebruik in FDTD simulasies van verskeie mikrogolftoevoegers met die oog om ’n vergelyking te tref tussen gesimuleerde en gemete S-parameters. Verskillende vlakke van akkuraatheid is bereik en is ’n funksie van die geometrie en die materiaaleienskappe van die model. Nadat gemete en gesimuleerde S-parameters vergelyk is, is gevind dat die materiaal eienskappe van beide die soliede en vergruisde rots monsters goed bepaal is vir mikrogo lf toevoeger ontwerp. Voorspelde en gemete veldverspreidings word ook vergelyk en dit is veral hierso van belang om ’n realistiese model van die nie-homogene monster te gebruik. Sekere voorstelle word gemaak om die verskillende aspekte van die meet van ma teriaaleienskappe en simulasiemodelle te kan verfyn. ’n Spesifieke toepassing van hierdie werk is in mikrogolf ondersteunde skeiding van minerale en erts.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/21217
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