gyrA mutations and phenotypic susceptibility levels to ofloxacin and moxifloxacin in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Objectives: To compare mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene and flanking sequences with the MICs of ofloxacin and moxifloxacin for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods: The presence of mutations in 177 drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates was determined by DNA sequencing and the MICs quantified by MGIT 960. Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected at codons 94 (n = 30), 90 (n = 12), 91 (n = 3), 89 (n = 1), 88 (n = 1) and 80 (n = 1). Four isolates with double mutations D94G plus A90V (n = 2) and D94G plus D94N (n = 2) reflect mixed populations. Agreement between genotypic and phenotypic susceptibility was high (≥97%) for both drugs. Mutant isolates had an MIC 50 of 8.0 mg/L and an MIC 90 of >10 mg/L for ofloxacin compared with an MIC 50 and MIC 90 of 2.0 mg/L for moxifloxacin. Codons 94 and 88 were linked to higher levels of fluoroquinolone resistance compared with codons 90, 91 and 89. The MIC distributions for the wild-type isolates ranged from ≤0.5 to 2.0 mg/L for ofloxacin and from ≤0.125 to 0.25 mg/L for moxifloxacin. However, 96% of the isolates with genetic alterations had MICs ≤2.0 mg/L for moxifloxacin, which is within its achievable serum levels. Conclusions: This study provides quantitative evidence that the addition of moxifloxacin to extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) regimens based on a clinical breakpoint of 2.0 mg/L has merit. The use of moxifloxacin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may prevent the acquisition of additional mutations and development of XDR-TB. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.