The inoculum ecology of Botrytis cinerea in Rooibos nurseries

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dc.contributor.advisor Holz, G.
dc.contributor.advisor Lamprecht, S.C.
dc.contributor.author Spies, Christoffel, F. J. (Christoffel Frederik Jakobus)
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Plant Pathology. en
dc.date.accessioned 2012-05-09T10:35:44Z
dc.date.available 2012-05-09T10:35:44Z
dc.date.issued 2005-04
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20943
dc.description Thesis (MScAgric)--University of Stellenbosch, 2005. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is the most important foliar disease of rooibos seedlings. Although the disease is primarily controlled with applications of fungicides, the improvement of cultural methods of disease management should lessen this dependence on chemical control. Such improvements would, however, not be possible without knowledge of the inoculum sources and dispersal of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to investigate the inoculum ecology of B. cinerea in rooibos nurseries in order to identify primary sources of inoculum and to improve the environmentally friendly management of the disease. The study was conducted in four nurseries over two production seasons (March to July 2003 and 2004). Levels of airborne inoculum of B. cinerea were monitored on a monthly basis inside and around the nurseries with spore traps. Samples of plant material and organic debris were taken in the corresponding areas to determine the incidence of plant material infected by the pathogen and the incidences of grey mould in the nurseries were recorded. Low numbers of B. cinerea colonies were observed on the spore traps. Similar levels of airborne inoculum were observed inside and around the nurseries. The incidence of plant material yielding B. cinerea was higher outside the nurseries than inside, indicating the importance of such materials as potential sources of inoculum. Since patterns of airborne inoculum observed in this study confirmed reports of the local dispersal of B. cinerea, the removal of possible hosts outside the nurseries could aid in the management of grey mould in rooibos nurseries. Resistance to dicarboximide fungicides is a genetically stable trait in B. cinerea, and therefore has the potential to be used as a phenotypic marker. This marker can be used to gain knowledge on the dispersal of B. cinerea inoculum inside and outside rooibos nurseries. Isolates of B. cinerea collected from the air and from plant material in and around four rooibos nurseries were assessed for resistance to iprodione at 1 and 3 μg/ml a.i. Some of the isolates showed resistance to iprodione at 1 μg/ml a.i. However, none of the isolates showed resistance at 3 μg/ml a.i. iprodione. The initial incidence of dicarboximide-resistance at the nurseries was slightly higher than expected. As the season progressed, the incidence of iprodione-resistant isolates decreased towards May, after which an increase was observed towards July. A relatively high percentage of isolates collected outside the nurseries was found to be dicarboximide-resistant. Two of the nurseries had a significant higher incidence of resistant isolates on plant material collected inside, than on plant material collected outside the nursery. However, when looking at resistance levels of airborne isolates, no significant differences were found in the incidence of resistant isolates sampled inside and outside the four nurseries. The data indicated the importance of organic debris and seed-borne infections in the survival and dispersal of dicarboximide-resistant isolates of the pathogen. With the current emphasis on organic agriculture the knowledge gained in this study presents valuable possibilities of improving the cultural management of grey mould in rooibos nurseries. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vaalvrot, veroorsaak deur Botrytis cinerea, is die belangrikste bo-grondse siekte van rooibossaailinge. Alhoewel die beheer van die siekte hoofsaaklik op die gebruik van fungisiede berus, behoort die verbetering van verbouingspraktyke hierdie afhanklikheid van chemiese beheer te verminder. Sulke verbeteringe sal egter slegs moontlik wees indien voldoende kennis van die inokulumbronne en verspreiding van die patogeen beskikbaar is. Die doel van hierdie ondersoek was om die inokulum ekologie van B. cinerea in rooibos kwekerye te ondersoek sodat primêre inokulumbronne opgespoor en omgewingsvriendelike siektebestuurspraktyke verbeter kan word. Die ondersoek is in vier kwekerye oor twee produksie seisoene (Maart tot Julie 2003 en 2004) uitgevoer. Vlakke van luggedraagde inokulum van B. cinerea is op ’n maandelikse basis met behulp van spoorvangers binne en buite die kwekerye gemonitor. Monsters van plantmateriaal en organiese materiaal is in ooreenstemmende areas geneem om die voorkoms van B. cinerea geïnfekteerde plantmateriaal vas te stel en die voorkoms van vaalvrot in die kwekerye is aangeteken. Min B. cinerea kolonies is op die spoorvangers waargeneem. Soortgelyke vlakke van luggedraagde inokulum is binne en buite die kwekerye waargeneem. Die hoër voorkoms van B. cinerea geïnfekteerde plantmateriaal buite die kwekerye as binne, dui op die belang van sulke materiaal as potensiële inokulumbronne. Aangesien die patrone van luggedraagde inokulum, soos waargeneem in hierdie ondersoek, ander berigte van B. cinerea se beperkte verspreidingsvermoë bevestig, kan die verwydering van moontlike alternatiewe gashere buite die kwekerye die bestuur van die siekte binne die kwekerye verbeter. Weerstand teen dikarboksimied fungisiede is ’n geneties-stabiele kenmerk in B. cinerea en het daarom potensiaal om as ’n fenotipiese merker gebruik te word. Hierdie merker kan gebruik word om kennis aangaande die verspreiding van B. cinerea in en om rooibos kwekerye in te samel. Botrytis cinerea isolate in lug en op plantmateriaal in en om vier rooibos kwekerye is gedurende 2003 en 2004 versamel. Die isolate is vir weerstandbiedendheid teen iprodioon by konsentrasies van 1 en 3 μg/ml aktiewe bestandeel (a.b.) getoets. Isolate met weerstand teen 1 μg/ml a.b. iprodioon is waargeneem, maar nie teen 3 μg/ml nie. Die aanvanklike voorkoms van dikarboksimiedweerstand by die kwekerye was hoër as verwag. Hierdie vlak het egter gedaal met die verloop van die seisoen tot in Mei, waarna ’n toename tot in Julie waargeneem is. Die persentasie dikarboksimied-weerstandbiedende isolate buite die kwekerye was relatief hoog. In twee van die kwekerye was die voorkoms van weerstandbiedende isolate op plantmateriaal in die kwekerye betekenisvol hoër as op plantmateriaal buite die kwekerye. Daar was egter geen betekenisvolle verskille in die voorkoms van luggedraagde weerstandbiedende isolate nie, ongeag van die kwekery of posisie. Die data dui op die belang van organiese materiaal en saadgedraagde infeksies in die oorlewing en verspreiding van dikarboksimied-weerstandbiedende isolate van die patogeen. Met die huidige klem op organiese landbou bied die inligting wat in hierdie ondersoek versamel is moontlike praktyke wat geïmplementeer kan word om die beheer van vaalvrot in kwekerye met behulp van verbouingspraktyke te verbeter. af
dc.format.extent 66 leaves : ill.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University
dc.subject Rooibos tea -- Diseases and pests -- Control en_ZA
dc.subject Rooibos tea -- Seedlings -- Protection en_ZA
dc.subject Botrytis cinerea -- Biological control en_ZA
dc.subject Nurseries (Horticulture) -- Management en_ZA
dc.subject Fungal diseases of plants en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Plant pathology en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Plant pathology en_ZA
dc.title The inoculum ecology of Botrytis cinerea in Rooibos nurseries en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University en_ZA


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