Community-based multi-disease prevention campaigns for controlling human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) 21-34 fold, and has fuelled the resurgence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the Three I's for HIV/TB (infection control, intensified case finding [ICF] and isoniazid preventive therapy) and earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy for preventing TB in persons with HIV. Current service delivery frameworks do not identify people early enough to maximally harness the preventive benefits of these interventions. Community-based campaigns were essential components of global efforts to control major public health threats such as polio, measles, guinea worm disease and smallpox. They were also successful in helping to control TB in resource-rich settings. There have been recent community-based efforts to identify persons who have TB and/or HIV. Multi-disease community-based frameworks have been rare. Based on findings from a WHO meta-analysis and a Cochrane review, integrating ICF into the recent multi-disease prevention campaign in Kenya may have had implications in controlling TB. Community-based multi-disease prevention campaigns represent a potentially powerful strategy to deliver prevention interventions, identify people with HIV and/or TB, and link those eligible to care and treatment. © 2012 The Union.