Cluster in nuclei: Experimental perspectives
This lecture notes treat some experimental aspects of nuclear cluster states studies, ranging from traditional techniques to some of the most recent developments and emerging methods. Experimental investigations, in the field of nuclear clusters are discussed in terms of detection techniques and associated electronics. Recent developments in accelerator technology and targetry are also presented in the scope of new opportunities in cluster studies. The nature of cluster states makes exclusive measurements crucial. It requires the simultaneous detection of nucleons, light, intermediate-mass and heavy fragments, and possibly -rays together with timing information. Precise measurements of angular correlations and energy distributions between emitted particles are needed for kinematic reconstruction in order to achieve a detailed study of the decay modes and the underlying dynamics. Within this scope, highly segmented and high-efficiency detection systems are depicted. Developments in digital signal processing have made possible major advances in experimental nuclear physics. The combination of large numbers of channels with fast data acquisition systems is one of the key aspects of this modern technology. Nuclear reactions play a key role in the study of the structure of nuclear clusters. Therefore, aspects of acceleration, including high-intensity, low-energy stable and radioactive beams are presented. Targetry has received a renewed interest with the advent of active targets (ACTAR). The combination of radioactive beams and active targets for the study of nuclear clustering is certainly opening new horizons in this field of physics. A number of current experimental setups and computer codes are cited to illustrate some of the techniques described but this list is by no means exhaustive. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.