The Cameroon 2008 burkitt lymphoma protocol: Improved event-free survival with treatment adapted to disease stage and the response to induction therapy
Treatment of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) with cyclophosphamide (CPM) and intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) can cure 50% of patients. In this study, induction therapy with CPM and IT MTX was followed by consolidation chemotherapy adapted for stage, clinical response, and abdominal ultrasound findings. One hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients with BL, 77 male and 52 female with a median age of 7.9 years, were treated in mission hospitals in Cameroon. The diagnosis rested on fine-needle aspirate (79%), biopsy, bone marrow, cerebrospinal fluid, abdominal ultrasound, and clinical examination. Six percent had St Jude stage I, 13% stage II, 72% stage III, and 12% stage IV disease. The abdomen (76%) and face (50%) were mainly involved. Induction chemotherapy was CPM 40 mg/kg and IT MTX 12.5 mg and IT hydrocortisone 12.5 mg on days 1, 8, and 15. Stage I and II patients received CPM 60 mg/kg on day 29, and stage III patients CPM 60 mg/kg on days 29 and 43 if in remission on day 28. Stage IV patients and patients not in remission received CPM 60 mg/kg on days 29, 43, and 57 and 1.0 g/m 2 MTX intravenous (IV) and vincristine 1.5 mg/m 2 IV on day 29. Event-free survival (EFS) at mean 365 days was 61% (n = 79) and 100% in stage I, 85% in stage II, 60% in stage III, and 27% in stage IV patients. Deaths (n = 24) were disease or treatment related and 26 patients relapsed (mean 135 days). Risk-adapted treatment achieved 61% 1-year EFS. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.