The knowledge of prevention of mother to child transmission among pregnant women at Mabote clinic, Tsepong, Lesotho after voluntary counselling and testing

Olorunfemi, Adebola Folashade (2012-03)

Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background Voluntary counselling and testing in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has an important role to play in Lesotho's response to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic among women of childbearing age. In fact, the cornerstone of a successful PMTCT programme is a high level of HIV testing among pregnant women in order to identify who are positive and at risk of transmitting the virus to their babies. For effective PMTCT, there is a need to integrate voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) into antenatal care and maternity care, rather than providing it through a separate VCT unit. There is also a need to understand that counselling and HIV testing must be confidential and voluntary, and the qualities of these services have a high impact on the uptake of voluntary counselling and testing services. Aim This study is aimed at establishing the current knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women who attend counselling in order to improve counselling services and transmission of HIV among them during pregnancy at Mabote Clinic, Tsepong in Lesotho. Method A well-structured questionnaire was administered to thirty (30) women registering for the first time for antenatal care. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts. The first part was to determine the bio-data and socio-economic status of the women, the second to explore their general knowledge of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) while the last part was knowledge of counselling. The study was conducted between 22nd August and September 30, 2011 and the sample, consisted of 30 women aged between 18 and 49 years. Results It was found out that the majority of the women were married (60%) and 50% were aged between 21-30 years. The majority (87%) have heard about prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) but only 10% knew that the HIV could be transmitted through other ways. About 87% of them knew that HIV could be transmitted through sexual intercourse; also 83% of them knew that the virus could be transmitted from the infected pregnant mother to unborn child. The knowledge on mother to child transmission was high; as only 77% knew that HIV could be transmitted during breastfeeding, 70% knew that HIV could be transmitted during pregnancy while 60% knew that the virus could be transmitted during delivery through the vagina. Knowledge of drugs to prevent transmission was also found to be on the high side. Conclusion It can be concluded that a high percentage of women had heard of the PMTCT and there was an in-depth knowledge of the modes of transmission especially mother to child transmission. Willingness to undertake an HIV test was mainly for the protection of the baby. It is therefore recommended that the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare should develop guidelines on PMTCT for pregnant women and create more VCT centres. Generally, there should be more education on HIV/AIDS for the public and also it should form part of the school curriculum.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond Vrywillige berading en toetsing met betrekking tot die voorkoming van moeder tot kind oordrag (PMTCT) het 'n vername rol te speel in Lesotho se reaksie op die Mensimmuungebreksvirus (MIV)-epidemie onder vroue van vrugbare leeftyd. Trouens, 'n hoë vlak van MIV-toetsing onder swanger vroue, wat bepaal wie positief is en wie die gevaar loop om die virus aan hulle babas oor te dra, is die hoeksteen van 'n suksesvolle PMTCT-program. Met 'n suksesvolle PMTCT-program as mikpunt, is dit noodsaaklik om vrywilige berading en toetsing (VCT) met voorgeboortelike en kraamsorg saam te voeg, eerder as om dit deur middel van 'n afsonderlike VCT-eenheid te verskaf. Daar is ook 'n behoefte om te besef dat berading en MIV-toetsing vertroulik en vrywillig behoort te wees, en dat die gehalte van dié dienste 'n hoë impak op die begrip rakende vrywillige berading- en toetsingdienste het. Doelwit Dié studie is daarop gemik om die huidige kennis aangaande PMTCT onder swanger vroue, wat berading ontvang, te bepaal met die doel om beradingsdienste en oordrag van MIV in eie geledere tydens swangerskapverblyf by die Mabote-kliniek in Tsepong, Lesotho, te verbeter. Metode 'n Deeglik-gestruktueerde vraelys is aan dertig (30) vroue, wat die eerste keer vir voorgeboortelike sorg registreer, verskaf. Die vraelys het uit drie dele bestaan. Met die eerste deel is daar geprobeer om die bio-data en sosio-ekonomiese status van die vroue vas te stel, die tweede deel was daarop gemik om hulle algemene ingeligtheid rakende moeder tot kind oordrag te bepaal en die derde deel sou 'n beeld weergee van hulle kennis oor berading. Die studie is tussen 22 Augustus en 30 September 2011 uitgevoer en die monster waarmee gewerk is, het uit 30 vroue tussen die ouderdom van 18 en 49 jaar bestaan. Bevindinge Bovermelde het daarop gedui dat die meerderheid vroue getroud was (60%) en 50% se ouderdom het gewissel tussen 21 en 30 jaar. Die meerderheid (87%) het kennis gedra van die voorkoming van moeder tot kind oordrag (PMTCT), maar net ??% van hulle was daarvan bewus dat MIV deur seksuele omgang oorgedra kan word; ook het 83% van hulle geweet dat die virus van die geïnfekteerde swanger moeder aan die ongebore kind oorgedra kon word. Hulle kennis aangaande moeder tot kind oordrag was omvattend; 77% was daarvan bewus dat MIV met borsvoeding oorgedra kan word, 70% het geweet MIV kan tydens swangerskap oorgedra word en 60% het geweet dat die virus tydens geboorte via die vagina oorgedra kan word. Daar is ook bevind dat kennis oor middels om oordrag te voorkom, aansienlik was. Ten slotte Hier kan gemeld word dat 'n hoë persentasie vroue kennis van die PMTCT-program gedra het en daar bestaan by hulle omvattende kennis oor die wyses van oordrag, veral van moeder tot kind. Gewilligheid om aan 'n MIV-toets onderwerp te word, het hoofsaaklik om beskerming van die baba gedraai. Derhalwe word daar aanbeveel dat die Ministerie van Gesondheid en Maatskaplike Welsyn riglyne behoort op te stel met betrekking tot PMTCT vir swanger vroue en ook meer VCT-sentrums in die lewe behoort te roep. Oor die algemeen behoort daar vir die publiek omvattender onderrig ten opsigte van MIV/VIGS te wees en dit hoort ook in die leerplan vir skole.

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