Factors influencing the degree of burnout experienced by nurses working in neonatal intensive care units

Joubert, Ronel (2012-03)

Thesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Burnout is one of the challenges that nurses are faced with in their stressful and rapidly changing work environment. The vulnerability of nurses to burnout remains a major concern which affects both the individual and institution. Knowledge about burnout and associated risk factors which influence the development of burnout is vital for early recognition and intervention. The research question which guided this study was: “What are the factors influencing the degree of burnout experienced by nurses working in neonatal intensive care units?” The objectives included determining which physical, psychological, social and occupational factors influenced the degree of burnout experienced by nurses. A descriptive, explorative research design with a quantitative approach was applied. The target population consisted of (n=105) permanent nursing staff members working in the neonatal units of two different hospitals. A convenience sampling method was used. Participants (n=102) who gave voluntary consent to participate was included in the study. Validity and reliability was supported through the use of a validated questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey including a section based on demographical information and a section based on physical, psychosocial, social and occupational factors. Validity of the questionnaire was supported by the use of a research methodologist, nurse expert and a statistician in the particular field. A pilot study was done to test the feasibility of the study and to test the questionnaire for any errors and ambiguities. Ethics approval was obtained from Stellenbosch University and permission from the Heads of the hospitals where the study was conducted. The data was analyzed with the assistance of a statistician and these are presented in histograms, tables and frequencies. The relationship between response variables and nominal input variables was analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Various statistical tests were applied to determine statistical associations between variables such as the Spearman test, using a 95% confidence interval. Results have shown that participants experienced an average level of emotional exhaustion, a high level of professional efficacy and a low level of cynicism. Further analyses have shown that there is a statistical significant difference between emotional exhaustion and the rank of the participant (p=<0.01), highest qualification (p=0.05) and a high workload (p=0.01). Furthermore a statistical significant difference was found between professional efficacy and rank of participants (p=<0.01). In addition a statistical significant difference was found between cynicism and the number of years participants were in the profession (p=0.05). Multiple factors were determined in this study that influences the degree of burnout nurses experience. The majority of participants (n=56/55%) experienced decreased job satisfaction and accomplishment, (n=52/51%) of participants experienced that their workload is too much for them and (n=63/62%) participants received no recognition for their work. Recommendations are based on preventative measures, because preventing burnout is easier and more cost-effective than resolving burnout once it has occurred. In conclusion, the prevention strategies, early recognition of work stress and appropriate interventions are crucial in addressing the problem of burnout.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Uitbranding is een van die uitdagings waarmee verpleegsters te kampe het in hulle stresvolle en vinnig veranderende werkomgewing. Die kwesbaarheid van verpleegsters vir uitbranding bly ’n kritieke bekommernis wat beide die individu en die inrigting affekteer. Kennis omtrent uitbranding en verwante risiko faktore wat die ontwikkeling van uitbranding beïnvloed, is deurslaggewend vir vroeë opsporing en intervensie. Die navorsingsvraag wat hierdie studie gelei het, is: “Wat is die faktore wat die mate van uitbranding beïnvloed wat deur verpleegsters ondervind word wat in neonatale intensiewe sorgeenhede werk?” Die doelwitte wat ingesluit is, is om te bepaal watter fisiese, sielkundige, maatskaplike en beroepsfaktore die mate van uitbranding wat deur verpleegsters ervaar word, beïnvloed. ’n Beskrywende, ondersoekende navorsingsontwerp met ’n kwantitatiewe benadering is toegepas. Die teikengroep het bestaan uit (n=105) permanente verpleegpersoneel wat in die neonatale eenhede van twee verskillende hospitale werk. ’n Gerieflikheidsteekproef metode is gebruik. Deelnemers (n=102) wat vrywillige toestemming gegee het om deel te neem, is ingesluit in die navorsingstudie. Geldigheid en betroubaarheid is ondersteun deur die gebruik van ’n geldige vraelys van “Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey”, asook ’n afdeling gebaseer op demografiese inligting en ’n afdeling gebaseer op fisiese, sielkundige, maatskaplike en beroepsfaktore. Geldigheid van die vraelys is ondersteun deur ’n navorsingsmetodoloog, ’n verpleegspesialis en ’n statistikus op die navorsingsgebied. ’n Loodsondersoek is gedoen om die haalbaarheid van die studie te toets en om die vraelys te toets vir enige foute en dubbelsinnighede. Etiese goedkeuring is verkry van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch en goedkeuring van die Hoofde van die hospitale waar die studie uitgevoer is. Die data is geanaliseer met die hulp van ’n statistikus en is aangebied in histogramtafels en frekwensies. Die verwantskap tussen responsveranderlikes en nominale insetveranderlikes is geanaliseer deur gebruik te maak van die analise van variansie (ANOVA). Verskeie statistiese toetse is toegepas om statistiese assosiasies tussen veranderlikes te bepaal, soos deur van die Spearmantoets gebruik te maak, met ’n 95% betroubaarheidsinterval. Resultate het bewys dat deelnemers ’n gemiddelde vlak van emosionele uitputting, ’n hoë vlak van professionele effektiwiteit en ’n lae vlak van sinisme ervaar. Verdere analise het bewys dat daar ’n statistiese beduidende verskil tussen emosionele uitputting en die rang van die deelnemers (p=<0.01) is, hoogste kwalifikasie (p=0.05) en ’n hoë werklading (p=0.01). Verder is ’n statistiese beduidende verskil gevind tussen professionele effektiwiteit en rang van deelnemers (p=<0.01). Saam hiermee is ’n statistiese beduidende verskil gevind tussen siniesheid en die aantal jare wat deelnemers in die beroep is (p=0.05). Voorts, is veelvuldige faktore bepaal in hierdie studie wat die mate van uitbranding beïnvloed wat verpleegsters ervaar. Die meeste van die deelnemers (n=56/55%) het ’n afname in werksbevrediging en -verrigting ervaar, (n=52/51%) deelnemers het ervaar dat hul werklading te veel is vir hulle en (n=63/62%) deelnemers het geen erkenning vir hulle werk ontvang nie. Aanbevelings is gebaseer op voorkomende maatreëls, want om uitbranding te voorkom, is makliker en meer koste-effektief as om uitbranding te probeer oplos as dit alreeds begin het. Ten slotte, die voorkomende strategieë, vroeë identifisering van werkstres en geskikte intervensies is deurslaggewend om die probleem van uitbranding aan te spreek.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20217
This item appears in the following collections: