Free light chains in patients with HIV: establishing local reference ranges and their association with stage of disease, chronic antigen stimulation and the effect of Haart

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dc.contributor.advisor Zemlin, A. E. en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisor Erasmus, R. T. en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Germishuys, Jurie J. en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Pathology. Chemical Pathology. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-12T13:13:27Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-30T10:49:26Z
dc.date.available 2012-03-12T13:13:27Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2012-03-30T10:49:26Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20173 en_ZA
dc.description Thesis (MMedSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: Serum free light chains (FLC) are associated with imbalances in heavy and light chain production. Abnormal FLC ratios have been associated with risk of progression in certain diseases. Automated assays are available for their determination and they are used in the followup and management of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. Acceptable imprecision, specificity, accuracy and reproducibility between reagent batches is required to prevent under- or overestimation. Method validation is a standard process in every good laboratory to judge the acceptability of a new method. Reference intervals have been established in an older population, but it was considered important to verify these in our population. HIV is associated with B-cell dysfunction. As B-cell abnormalities are associated with disorders leading to monoclonal gammopathies, we postulated that the FLC levels and FLC ratio would be abnormal in HIV infected individuals. Methods and materials: Controls and pooled patient samples were used for the method validation study which included imprecision studies, linearity, recovery and interference studies, and method comparison studies, the latter compared our method to the same method used in another laboratory. For the reference interval study, blood was obtained from 120 healthy subjects. The following blood tests were performed: total protein, IgG, IgA, IgM, creatinine, protein electrophoresis, kappa FLC and lambda FLC. Using the kappa and lambda FLC results, a FLC ratio was determined. Three hundred and sixty-nine HIV positive subjects were then studied. The same tests were performed, as well as CD4+ counts and viral loads on the majority of them. Results: For the method validation study, precision, linearity and recovery was acceptable. Minimal interference was observed with haemolysis, lipaemia, bilirubin and rheumatoid factor. Our method showed comparable performance with the established method. For the reference interval study, all the creatinine values were normal, as were serum protein values. The serum protein electrophoreses were independently reviewed by 3 pathologists. Most were normal, with a few polyclonal increases seen, but no definite monoclonal bands. The 95% reference intervals for FLC’s as well as the FLC ratio were not statistically significantly different to the manufacturer’s recommendations. When examining the HIV positive study population, we found that FLC and FLC ratio were influenced by markers of HIV disease severity, such as CD4+ count, IgG, viral load, use of antiretroviral treatment and abnormal serum protein electrophoreses. Conclusion: The validation study of FLC showed excellent precision, acceptable bias, good linearity, good recovery and minimal interference, allowing routine introduction of the test. The 95% reference intervals obtained for our population were slightly higher than those recommended by the manufacturer. However, as most of the values fell within the manufacturer’s limits, we could accept the manufacturer’s recommended cut-offs. We found that FLC levels were definitely influenced by markers of HIV disease severity in our population and we postulate that they may be of use for follow-up of patients with HIV. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Serum vry ligte kettings (VLK) word geassosieer met ‘n wanbalans van ligte en swaar ketting produksie. Abnormale VLK ratios is geassosieer met ‘n risiko van verloop in sekere siektes. Geoutomatiseerde laboratorium toetse vir VLK is beskikbaar vir hul bepaling en word gebruik om pasiënte met monoklonale gammopatieë op te volg en te behandel. Aanvaarbare impresisie, spesifisiteit, akkuraatheid en herhaalbaarheid tussen reagens besendings is belangrik om onder- of oorbepaling te verhoed. Metode validasie is ’n standaard proses in elke goeie laboratorium om die aanvaarbaarheid van ’n nuwe metode te bepaal. Verwysingswaardes is al bepaal in ’n ouer populasie. Ons het besluit om die verwysingswaardes in ons populasie te bepaal. Mens-immuungebrekvirus (MIV) word geassosieer met B-sel disfunksie. Omdat B-sel abnormaliteite geassosieer word met afwykings wat tot monoklonale gammopatieë lei, het ons gepostuleer dat die VLK vlakke en VLK ratio abnormaal sal wees in MIV geïnfekteerde persone. Metodes en Materiale: Kontroles en pasiënt monsters is gebruik vir die metode validasie studie wat impresisie studies, lineariteit, herwinning, inmenging en metode korrelasie studies ingesluit het. In laasgenoemde geval is ons metode met dieselfde metode van ’n ander laboratorium vergelyk. Vir die verwysingswaardes studie is 120 gesonde persone se bloed gebruik. Die volgende toetse is bepaal: totale proteïen, IgG, IgA, IgM, kreatinien, proteïen elektroferese, kappa en lambda VLK. Die VLK ratio is bepaal deur die kappa en lambda resultate te gebruik. Driehonderd nege en sestig MIV-positiewe pasiente is gebruik vir die studie. Dieselfde toetse was gedoen, asook CD4+ tellings en virale ladings op die meerderheid van pasiente. Resultate: Vir die metode validasie studie, was presisie, lineariteit en herwinning aanvaarbaar. Minimale inmenging van hemolise, lipemie, bilirubien en rumatoïede factor is waargeneem. Ons metode het goed gekorreleer met die bepaalde metode. Die serum kreatinien en serum totale proteïen waardes was normaal tydens die verwysingswaardes studie. Die serum proteïen elektroferese was onafhanklik beoordeel deur 3 patoloë. Die meeste was normaal met enkele poliklonale verhogings, maar geen definitiewe monoklonale bande nie. Die 95% verwysings intervalle vir VLK en VLK ratio het nie statisties betekenisvol verskil van die vervaardiger se aanbevelings nie. In die studie van die MIV-positiewe studie populasie, het ons gevind dat VLK en VLK ratio beïnvloed word deur merkers van ernstige MIV siekte, soos CD4+ telling, IgG, virale lading, die gebruik van antiretrovale medikasie en abnormale serum proteïen elektroferese. Gevolgtrekking: Die validasie studie van VLK het uitstekende presisie, aanvaarbare partydigheid, goeie lineariteit, goeie herwinning en minimale inmenging gewys, wat die roetine instelling van die toets toegelaat het. Die 95% verwysingsintervalle wat vir ons populasie bepaal is, was effens hoër as die vervaardiger se aanbeveling. Die meeste van die waardes het egter binne die vervaardiger se limiete geval, dus kon ons die vervaardiger se afsnypunte aanvaar. Ons het gevind dat VLK vlakke definitief beïnvloed word deur merkers van die ernstigheidsgraad van MIV siekte in ons populasie en ons postuleer dat VLK van waarde kan wees met die opvolg van MIV pasiente. af_ZA
dc.description.sponsorship NHLS
dc.description.sponsorship Harry Crossley for funding obtained
dc.description.sponsorship
dc.description.sponsorship
dc.format.extent 101 p. : col. ill.
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject HIV/AIDS en_ZA
dc.subject HAART en_ZA
dc.subject Serum free light chains (FLC) en_ZA
dc.subject Abnormal FLC levels and FLC ratio en_ZA
dc.subject B-cell abnormalities en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Chemical pathology en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Chemical pathology en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Pathology en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Pathology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Pathology en_ZA
dc.title Free light chains in patients with HIV: establishing local reference ranges and their association with stage of disease, chronic antigen stimulation and the effect of Haart en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University en_ZA


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