Deverbal nominals in Xitsonga

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dc.contributor.advisor Visser, M. en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Hlungwani, Madala Crous en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Science. Dept. of African Languages. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-08T12:34:40Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-30T10:47:23Z
dc.date.available 2012-03-08T12:34:40Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2012-03-30T10:47:23Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20151
dc.description Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study investigates the nature of Xitsonga deverbatives that are derived from three types of syntactic verbs, namely intransitive verbs, monotranstive verbs and ditransitive verbs .The aim is to determine the classes in which nominalisation occurs as well as to determine the semantic features which occur with these deverbatives in various noun classes. The three types of verbs are further distinguished into agentive verbs and non-agentive verbs. The deverbatives that are examined in this study are arranged in terms of Levin (1993)’s semantic classification of verbs. The focus of this study is on the verbs without derivational suffixes. However, few deverbatives with derived verbal forms have been included. The nominal morphology of Xitsonga is also examined in this study The study is conducted within the framework of four assumptions in morphology and lexical semantics, namely lexeme-based theory, X-bar syntax, lexical semantic properties of verb classes advanced by Levin (1993), and the Generative Lexicon theory advanced by Pustejovsky (1995), specifically the assumption about the meta-entry for a lexeme. The study illustrates that nominalisation in Xitsonga, in particular, and in African Languages in general occurs through the affixation of the class prefix and the nominal suffix onto the verb stem. The study found that the deverbal nominals occur in a similar morphological structure to that of nonderived nouns. It was also demonstrated that Xitsonga deverbatives may be classified in terms of Busa’s view of distinguishing between stage-level nominals and individual-level nominals. The study has established that nominalisation in Xitsonga is a phenomenon that occurs in classes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 14 with both agentive and non-agentive verbs as verb stems. It however, found that the most productive classes are 1, 3,5,7,and 14. The study demonstrated that class 1 deverbatives refer strictly to humans, while deverbatives in other classes refer to various things. The data examined in this study revealed that in general, Xitsonga deverbatives exhibit the following semantic features across various noun classes: [Actor], [Experiencer], [Theme], [Patient] [Result], [Event], [Act], [State], [Artifact], [Instrument]. [Excessive act], [Excessive state], [Place], [Expert], [Excessive actor], [Excessive experiencer], [Excessive theme], and [Excessive patient]. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die studie ondersoek die aard van deverbatiewe naamwoorde in Xitsonga wat afgelei word vanaf drie soorte werkwoorde, naamlik, intransitiewe, enkel-transitiewe en dubbel-transitiewe werkwoorde. Die doelstelling van die studie is om te bepaal in watter naamwoordklasse nominalisering kan voorkom, en wat die semantiese kenmerke is van die deverbatiewe wat in die verskillende naamwoordklasse voorkom. Die drie tipes werkwoordklasse word voorts onderskei in terme van agentiewe en nieagentiewe werkwoorde. Die deverbatiewe naamwoorde wat in die studie ondersoek word, word verder onderskei volgens die klassifikasie van semantiese werkwoordklasse van Levin (1993). Die studie fokus op naamwoorde afgelei van werkwoorde sonder afleidingsagtervoegsels. Nietemin is enkele werkwoordvorme met afleidings-agtervoegsels ingesluit. Die studie ondersoek ook die naamwoordmorfologie van Xitsonga. Die studie is onderneem binne die raamwerk van vier breë weergawes van morfologie, sintaksis en leksikale semantiek, naamlik morfeem-lekseem gebaseerde teorie, X-balk sintaksis, Levin (1993) se semantiese werkwoordklas klassefikasie, en Generatiewe Leksikon Teorie van Pustejovsky (1995), in die besonder die aanname van die meta-inskrywing vir die lekseem. Die studie bevestig dat nominalisering in Xitsonga, soos in die Afrikatale in die algemeen, manifesteer deur die affiksering van 'n prefiks en 'n suffiks aan die werkwoordstam waarvandaan die naamwoord afgelei word. Die studie het bevind dat afgeleide naamwoorde in 'n soortgelyke morfologiese struktuur voorkom as nie-afgeleide naamwoorde in Xitsonga. Daar is ook bevind dat Xitsonga deverbatiewe geklassifiseer kan word in terme van Busa se onderskeid tussen fase-vlak en individuele-vlak nominate. Die studie het bevind dat nominalisering in Xitsonga voorkom in klasse 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 en 14, afgelei van sowel agentiewe as nie-agentiewe werkwoord stamme. Daar is bevind dat die mees produktiewe klasse, klas 1, 3, 5, 7 en 14 is. Die studie het voorts aangetoon dat klas 1 deverbatiewe slegs mensverwysing het, terwyl die deverbatiewe in ander klasse na 'n verskeidenheid semantiese entiteite verwys. Volgens die data wat ondersoek is, volg dit dat Xitsonga deverbatiewe in die algemeen, die volgende semantiese kenmerke vertoon oor die verskillende naamwoordklasse: [Akteur], [Ervaarder], [Tema], [Pasiënt], [Resultaat], [Gebeurtenis], [Aksie], [Toestand], [Artifak], [Instrument], [Oordrewe aksie], [Plek], [Ekspert], [Oordrewe akteur], [Oordrewe ervaarder], [Oordrewe tema] en [Oordrewe pasiënt]. af
dc.description.abstract NKOMISO: Dyondzo leyi yi kambisisa xivumbeko xa mavitimpfelelo ya Xitsonga lama ya pfelelaka ya suka eka tinxaka tinharhu ta maendli ma le ka vulongoloxamarito, ku nga, maendli yo pfumala xiendliwa, maendli ya xiendliwa xin’we, na maendli ya swiendliwa swimbirhi. Xikongomelo i ku lava ku kumisisa mitlawa ya maviti leyi pfumelelaka mpfelelo wa maviti ku humelela ni ku kumisisa swihlawulekisi swa tinhlamuselo leswi kumekaka eka mavitimpfelelo eka mitlawa yo hambanahambana. Tinxaka tinharhu ta maendli ti tlhela ti hambanyisiwa ku ya hi maendli ya nghingiriko ni maendli yo pfumala nghingiriko. Mavitimpfelelo lama kambisisiwaka eka dyondzo leyi ma longoloxiwa hi ku ya hi maavelo ya maendli ya Levin (1993). Mhakankulu leyi dyondzo leyi yi langutanaka na yona yi le ka maendli mo pfumala swilandzi swa mpfelelo. Hambiswiritano, mavitimpfelelo ma nga ri mangani lama nga na swilandzi swa mpfelelo ma katsiwile eka dyondzo leyi. Mofoloji ya Xitsonga ya kambisisiwa na yona eka dyondzo leyi. Dyondzo leyi yi endliwa hi ku landza endlelo leri katsaka mavonelo ma mune eka mofoloji ni le ka semantiki, ku nga Lexeme -based theory, X – bar syntax, lexical semantics properties of verb classes leyi tumbuluxeke hi Levin (1993), na Generative Lexicon theory leyi tumbuluxeke hi Pustejovsky (1995), ku kongomisiwa ngopfu eka meta-entry ya rito.Dyondzo leyi yi kombisa leswaku mpfelelo wa maviti eka Xitsonga, hi ku kongomisa, na le ka tindzimi ta Xintima hi ku angarhela, wu va kona hikokwalaho ka ku lungeleriwa ka xirhangi xa ntlawa na xilandzi xa riendli eka nsinya wa riendli. Dyondzo leyi yi kumile leswaku mavitimpfelolo ma tirhisa xifaniso xa murhi xo fana na xa maviti mo ka ma nga ri ma mpfelelo. Ku tlhele ku kombisiwa leswaku mavitimpfelelo ya Xitsonga ma nga aviwa hi ku landza vonelo ra Busa (1996) ro hambanyisa exikarhi ka mavitipfelelo lama thyiwaka munhu hi ku landza mhaka leyi humelelaka hi nkarhi wolowo ni lama ya thyiwaka munhu hi ku ya hi mhaka leyi fambelanisiwaka na munhu wa kona, hambi a nga ri ku yi endleni hi nkarhi wolowo. Dyondzo leyi yi kumile leswaku mpfelelo wa maviti eka Xitsonga I mhaka leyi humelelaka eka mitlawa ya maviti ya 1,3,4,6,7,8,9, and 14 eka maendli ya nghingiriko ni yo pfumala nghingiriko. Hambiswiritano, ku kumekile leswaku mitlawa leyi mpfelelo wu humelelaka ngopfu eka yona I ya 1,3,5,7, and 14. Dyondzo leyi yi kombisile leswaku mavitimpfelelo ma le ka ntlawa wa 1 ma kongomisa eka vanhu, loko mavitimpfelelo ma le ka mitlawa yin’wana ma kongomisa eka swilo swo hambanahambana.Vuxokoxoko lebyi kamberiweke eka dyondzo leyi byi paluxile leswaku hi ku angarhela mavitimpfelelo ma humesa swihlawulekisi leswi landzelaka swa tinhlamuselo eka mitlawa ya maviti yo hambanahambana: [Muendli], [Mutokoti], [Nkongomelo], [Mutwisiwa ku vava], [Mbuyelo], [Xiendleko], [Nghingiriko], [Xiyimo], [Ximakiwa], [Xitirho], [Nghingiriko wo tlurisa], [Xiyimo xo tlurisa], [Ndhawu], [N’wavuswikoti], [[Muendli wo tlurisa], [Mutokoti wo tlurisa], [Nkongomelo wo tlurisa], na [Mutwisiwa ku vava wo tlurisa]. ts
dc.format.extent 1436 p.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject Grammar, Comparative and general -- Nominals en_ZA
dc.subject Tsonga language -- Nominals en_ZA
dc.subject Deverbatives en_ZA
dc.subject Nominalizations en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- African languages en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- African languages en_ZA
dc.title Deverbal nominals in Xitsonga en_ZA
dc.type Thesis
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University


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