The prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders : an ecological approach

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dc.contributor.advisor Green, S. en_ZA
dc.contributor.author De Vries, Maria Magdalena en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-07T12:15:37Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2012-03-30T10:40:20Z
dc.date.available 2012-03-07T12:15:37Z en_ZA
dc.date.available 2012-03-30T10:40:20Z
dc.date.issued 2012-03 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20077
dc.description Thesis (M Social Work)--Stellenbosch University, 2012. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is caused by maternal drinking during pregnancy. Pre-natal drinking has a range of deleterious effects including physical, mental and behavioural consequences for the affected child. Although FASD is completely preventable, it is irreversible with consequences that last into adulthood. The range of effects of FASD forms a spectrum with fully developed FAS on the one end and no effects on the other end of the spectrum. The Western Cape has one of the highest recorded rates of FAS in the world. This seriously affects almost all systems in society and strains the already overburdened educational-, health-, social- and judicial systems. For this reason preventing FASD is of the utmost importance and requires a comprehensive approach on multiple levels. This study explores and describes FASD prevention services in the Bonnievale, Robertson, Ashton and Montagu-areas – a wine-producing area in the Western Cape. Available FASD prevention services on all levels of prevention, the focus-areas of the different prevention activities, collaboration and co-ordination between the role-players and obstacles in delivering prevention services, was examined. By adopting an ecological approach, FASD prevention services could be investigated on multiple levels. This study used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research. An exploratory design and a purposive sampling method were used. Participants were interviewed individually and with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The findings of the empirical investigation show that, although prevention efforts are applied on the universal, selective and indicated levels of prevention, a lack of formal prevention efforts that are actively pursued - especially on the level of indicated prevention - exists. This is aggravated by the absence of formal co-ordination of services and structured systems of referrals. NGO‟s and government departments are, as a result, not clear about their respective roles and responsibilities and women with the highest risk for having a child with FAS, therefore, fall through the cracks of the system. This happens partly because social workers are often perceived as the only agents for social change in the community. According to the ecological approach all levels (micro, meso and macro) of organizations in the social environment should work together for change by repeating prevention messages on the different levels and thereby reinforcing it. In the study area, however, most FAS prevention services were on the micro-level with few on the meso-level and virtually none on macro-level. Participants identified a lack of co-ordination, unplanned families, a lack of resources, a lack of training and training material and low levels of education as obstacles in service delivery. Recommendations resulting from the study indicate that FAS prevention will benefit from structured, formal programs on all levels of prevention. This will require non-government organizations and government departments to co-ordinate services and to develop a formal system of referral amongst the role-players. Training of personnel in clinics, NGO‟s, government departments and volunteers, as well as the development of training material targeted at people on different levels of education, should receive attention. It is, in conclusion, recommended that community organizations and structures such as churches, places of business, farmer‟s associations and liquor outlets are actively involved in the prevention of FASD. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Fetale Alkohol Spektrum Afwykings (FASA) word veroorsaak deur alkoholgebruik tydens swangerskap. Alkoholgebruik tydens swangerskap het „n reeks skadelike effekte, insluitend fisiese, psigiese en gedragsafwykings in die geaffekteerde kind. Alhoewel FASA heeltemal voorkombaar is, is dit onomkeerbaar en duur die gevolge daarvan voort in volwassenheid. Die reeks effekte van FASA vorm „n spektrum met volledig ontwikkelde FAS aan die een kant en geen effekte nie aan die ander kant van die spektrum. Die Wes-Kaap het een van die hoogste aangetekende voorkomssyfers van FAS in die wêreld. Dit affekteer feitlik alle sisteme in die samelewing en plaas nog meer druk op die reeds oorlaaide opvoedkundige-, gesondheids-, maatskaplike- en regssisteme. Om hierdie rede is die voorkoming van FASA van uiterste belang en word „n omvattende benadering op veelvuldige vlakke vereis. Hierdie studie ondersoek en beskryf FASA voorkomingsdienste in die Bonnievale-, Robertson-, Ashton- en Montagu-area – „n wynproduserende streek in die Wes-Kaap. Die beskikbaarheid van FASA voorkomingsdienste op alle vlakke van voorkoming, die fokus-areas van die verskillende voorkomingsaktiwiteite, samewerking en koördinering van dienste tussen die rolspelers, sowel as struikelblokke in voorkomingsdienste, is ondersoek. Deur die ekologiese benadering aan te neem, kon FASA voorkomingsdienste op veelvuldige vlakke ondersoek word. Die studie kombineer kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe navorsing. Die ontwerp van die studie is verkennend en daar is „n doelbewuste steekproef gedoen. Indivuduele onderhoude met deelnemers is met behulp van semi-gestruktureeerde vraelyste gevoer. Die bevindinge van die empiriese ondersoek toon dat, alhoewel voorkomingspogings aangewend word op die universele, selektiewe en indikatiewe voorkomingsvlakke, daar 'n gebrek bestaan aan formele voorkomingspogings wat aktief nagestreef word, veral op die indikatiewe vlak. Dit word vererger deur die afwesigheid van formele koördinering van dienste en gestruktureerde verwysingsisteme. Nie-regeringsorganisasies en staatsdepartemente het gevolglik nie duidelikheid oor hul onderskeie rolle en verantwoordelikhede nie. Die gevolg hiervan is dat vroue met die hoogste risiko om geboorte te skenk aan kinders met FAS, deur die krake in die sisteem val. Dit geskied deels omdat maatskaplike werkers dikwels gesien word as die enigste agente vir maatskaplike verandering in die gemeenskap. Volgens die ekologiese benadering behoort alle vlakke (mikro, meso en makro) van organisasie in die sosiale omgewing saam te werk om verandering teweeg te bring deurdat voorkomingsboodskappe op die verskillende vlakke te herhaal en sodoende te versterk word. In die studie-area is die meeste voorkomingsdienste egter op mikro-vlak gelewer met min op meso-vlak en feilik geen op makro-vlak nie. Deelnemers aan die studie het „n gebrek aan koördinasie van dienste, onbeplande gesinne, „n gebrek aan hulpbronne, „n gebrek aan opleiding en opleidingsmateriaal en lae vlakke van geletterdheid geïdentifiseer as struikelblokke in dienslewering. Aanbevelings wat uit die studie voortvloei, dui aan dat FASA voorkomingsdienste sal baat vind by gestruktureerde, formele programme op alle vlakke van voorkoming. Dit sal vereis dat nie-regeringsorganisasies en staatdepartemente hul dienste koördineer en „n formele verwysingstelsel tussen die verskillende rolspelers ontwikkel. Opleiding van personeel in klinieke, NRO‟s, staatsdepartemente en vrywilligers, sowel as die ontwikkeling van opleidingsmateriaal wat persone op verskillende vlakke van opvoeding teiken, behoort aandag te geniet. Dit word laastens ook aanbeveel dat gemeenskapsorganisasies en strukture byvoorbeeld kerke, besighede, boere-verenigings en verkoopspunte vir alkohol, aktief betrek word by die voorkoming van FASA. af_ZA
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject Fetal alcohol syndrome -- Prevention -- South Africa -- Western Cape en_ZA
dc.subject Children of prenatal alcohol abuse -- South Africa -- Western Cape en_ZA
dc.subject Pregnant women -- Alcohol use -- South Africa -- Western Cape en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Social work en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Social work en_ZA
dc.subject.other Social Work en_ZA
dc.title The prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders : an ecological approach en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA
dc.rights.holder Stellenbosch University


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