Intravenous medication safety practices of registered nurses in neonatal and paediatric critical care areas

Cronje, Liza (2012-03)

Thesis (Mcur)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A literature study showed that the topics of medication safety and medication error prevention have been studied in depth. Findings from the literature revealed that medication errors are reported to be common in neonatal and paediatric ICUs, that more than half of these errors are preventable and that risk reduction measures protect patients against untoward outcomes or adverse events (Clifton-Koeppel, 2008:72). If and when there is a failure in the process of safe medication administration, it results in a medication error, which is defined as a breach of one or more of the five rights of medication administration (Institute for Safe Medication Practices Alert, 2007:1). Medication administration, which is predominantly a nursing task, is of high risk and high volume in the intensive care unit (ICU). The accuracy of intravenous medication administration is critical for a neonatal and paediatric ICU patient since it can potentially heighten the patient’s vulnerability if further harm is caused. In view of the complexity of medication administration for neonatal and paediatric ICU patients, researchers confirm the diverse role of the registered nurse in safe medication administration practices. The purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions of registered nurses (RNs) regarding the factors that influence IV medication safety practice in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); paediatric intensive care unit (PICU); and paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CSICU) in Saudi Arabia. The study objectives were set to describe the actual factors that have an influence on IV medication safety practices of RNs working in these ICUs; to determine the knowledge of registered nurses in the selected ICUs with regard to safe intravenous medication administration practices and to describe nursing medication administration strategies that are focused on medication error prevention. A quantitative research approach was selected for this study which had a descriptive, survey design. An 85% non-probability purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample (n=103) of the target population of NICU-, PICU- and CSICU-registered nurses (N=121) who were responsible for administering intravenous medication at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Jeddah (KFSHRC-J). A self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended Likert and open-ended question was designed to describe the objectives under study. A pilot study was conducted to pre-test the questionnaire. A quantitative method was used to analyse the study data. MS Excel was used to capture the quantitative data after which it was analysed using descriptive statistics by means of STATISTICA 9 software. The open–ended questions (indicating “other” and Question 70) were also interpreted quantitatively after exploring the main aspects in the responses. The main findings were that multiple perceived factors influence the intravenous medication safety practices of RN’s working with neonatal and paediatric ICU patients in a particular Saudi Arabian tertiary hospital. It was found that these nurses’ had knowledge regarding safe medication administration practice that constitutes that all five medication rights have to be checked through nursing ‘double-checks’ in the steps of medication administration, as the method of checking as per hospital policy. However, from the findings, it is reflected that RNs perceptions of completely and correctly checking medication rights through complete and independent nursing ‘double-checks’, do not match the steps required by policy and that their knowledge is inadequate. It is evident from the perceptions of RNs that they are aware of the multiple factors influencing IV medication safety practice in this vulnerable patient setting. As perceived by RNs, it is possible to implement more safety strategies. Key recommendations on conclusion of the study include that there are more nursing medication administration strategies that could still be implemented for medication error prevention. These strategies relate to medication safety awareness, the role of the nurse and nursing managers, mandatory staff education, and review of knowledge and skills.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Gebaseer op ʼn literatuurstudie blyk dit dat medikasieveiligheid en voorkoming van medikasiefoute reeds in diepte bestudeer are. Bevindings dui daarop dat medikasiefoute algemeen voorkom in neonatale en pediatriese intensiewesorgeenhede, dat meer as die helfte daarvan voorkombaar is, en dat maatreëls om risiko te vermindering pasiënte teen voorkombare uitkomste beskerm (Clifton-Koeppel, 2008:72). Indien en wanneer die proses vir veilige medikasietoediening faal, kom ʼn medikasiefout voor, wat gedefinieer word as die verbreking van een of meer van die vyf medikasieregte (Institute for Safe Medication Practices Alert, 2007:1). Medikasietoediening is hoofsaaklik ʼn verpleegtaak, wat ʼn hoërisiko- en hoëvolume-taak behels. Die akkuraatheid van intraveneuse medikasietoediening is kritiek vir neonatale en pediatriese intensiewesorgpasiënte, aangesien hul weerloosheid verhoog word indien verdere skade veroorsaak word. Omrede medikasietoediening vir neonatale en pediatriese intensiewesorgpasiënte kompleks is, bevestig navorsers dat geregistreerde verpleegkundiges se rol ten opsigte van veilige medikasietoediening veelsoortig is. Die doel van die studie was om die persepsies van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges aangaande die faktore wat medikasieveiligheid in die neonatale en paediatriese intensiewe eenhede in Saoedi-Arabië beinvloed, te beskryf. Studiedoelwitte is gestel om die spesifieke faktore te beskryf wat aanleiding gee tot medikasietoedieningsfoute in die genoemde intensiewesorgeenhede; om geregistreerde verpleegkundiges in die geselekteerde intensiewesorgeenhede se kennis van veilige medikasietoediening te bepaal; en die medikasietoedieningstrategieë wat op die voorkoming van medikasietoedieningsfoute fokus, te beskryf. ʼn Kwantitatiewe navorsingsbenadering is geselekteer vir die studie wat ʼn beskrywende navorsingsontwerp gehad het. ʼn 85% nie-waarskynlike gerieflikheidsteekproef is gebruik om ʼn steekproef (n=103) te selekteer vanuit die teikenpopulasie geregistreerde verpleegkundiges (N=121) wat verantwoordelik was vir medikasietoediening in die geselekteerde intensiewesorgeenhede by King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Jeddah (KFSHRC-J). ʼn Self-geadministreerde vraelys met geslote Likert- en oop-eindevrae is opgestel om die gestelde studiedoelwitte te ondersoek. ʼn Vooraf-toetsing van die vraelys is tydens die loodsstudie uitgevoer. ʼn Kombinasie van kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe metodes is gebruik vir die ontleding van die studie-data. Die kwantitatiewe data is op MS Excel ingevoer, waarna beskrywende statistiek deur middel van Statistica 9-sagteware gebruik is om dit te ontleed. Die studie het hoofsaaklik bevind dat veelvuldige faktore die veiligheidspraktyk ten opsigte van intraveneuse medikasie van geregistreerde verpleegkundiges wat met neonatal en pediatriese intensiewesorgpasiënte in ʼn spesifieke tersiêre hospitaal in Saoedi-Arabië werk, beïnvloed. Dit blyk dat hierdie verpleegkundiges se kennis voldoende is aangaande ‘n veilige medikasie toedieningspraktyk wat bestaan uit die kontrolering van al vyf medikasieregte deur verpleegkundige dubbel-kontrolering, soos beskryf is in die hospitaalbeleid. Volgens die bevindinge blyk dit egter dat die verpleegkundiges se persepsie van volledige and korrekte verpleegkundige dubbel-kontrolering, nie met die stappe volgens die hospitaalbeleid ooreenstem nie en dat hulle kennis onvoldoende is. Dit is duidelik dat die verpleegkundiges bewus is van die veelvuldige faktore wat intraveneuse medikasieveiligheidpraktyk vir weerlose pasiënte beïnvloed. Die verpleegkundiges se persepsie is dat daar meer verpleegkundige medikasietoedieningstrategieë is wat geïmplementeer kan word om medikasiefoute te voorkom, insluitende veiligheidsbewustheid ten opsigte van medikasie, die rol van verpleegkundiges en verpleegbestuurders, verpligte personeelopleiding, en hersiening van kennis en vaardighede.

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