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dc.contributor.advisorRoodt-Wilding, R.en_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorSlabbert, R.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSwart, Lianaen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Genetics.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2012-03-12T19:26:16Zen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2012-03-30T10:34:31Z
dc.date.available2012-03-12T19:26:16Zen_ZA
dc.date.available2012-03-30T10:34:31Z
dc.date.issued2012-03en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/20021
dc.descriptionThesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: The decline of Haliotis midae (perlemoen) populations together with the ensuing collapse of commercial abalone fisheries in South Africa have shifted the responsibility to abalone farms to meet the demand for perlemoen. Attention has recently turned to the genetic enhancement of cultured abalone in order for the farms to remain competitive in the international aquaculture market. To develop a successful breeding programme it is imperative to draw on a good foundation of high levels of genetic diversity and to successfully maintain these levels in order to create an enhanced strain of cultured abalone. A Performance Recording Scheme (PRS) was established as the first breeding programme for Haliotis midae to utilise molecular tools. This programme was aimed at enhancing the growth rate of abalone in order to shorten the production times on farms. The current study made use of 12 species-specific microsatellite markers to assign parentage to a group of faster-growing PRS animals, as selected by the abalone farms, in order to select a diverse on-farm generation of broodstock. Additionally, the influence of standard selection practises on the genetic diversity of a population compared to genotypic selection was investigated. This data was also used to study the differentiation and levels of genetic diversities within and between cultured and wild populations. Selection based on genotypic traits successfully retained genetic diversity while some diversity was lost in phenotypically selected populations. These phenotypic populations differed significantly from each other and wild populations, while the genotypic populations were similar in genetic composition to each other and wild populations of the West coast. The broodstock populations used in the PRS spawning event were representative of the wild populations from where they were sourced, with no significant differentiation between the broodstock and West coast population. When these broodstock populations were compared to their corresponding offspring populations, only two populations displayed a significant loss in diversity; although all of the offspring populations showed significant differentiation with their corresponding broodstock populations. This was attributed to the differential contribution of broodstock and the effect of artificial selection. It was established that the cultured populations of the participating abalone farms should be used with caution in ranching and reseeding programmes. These populations differed significantly from both the East and West coast wild populations. This study concluded that it is possible to retain genetic diversity by selecting breeding animals based on genotypic traits. The loss of diversity in some cultured populations and significant differentiation from the wild populations indicate that animals are exposed to different selection pressures in the cultured environment. The results found in this study highlight the need for the effective management of hatchery practices and the genetic monitoring of the breeding animals.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die afname in Haliotis midae (perlemoen) populasies en die daaropvolgende ineenstorting van die kommersiële perlemoen bedryf in Suid-Afrika het die verantwoordelikheid om in die aanvraag na perlemoen te voorsien, na perlemoen plase verskuif. Die genetiese verbetering van verboude perlemoen geniet tans aandag in ‘n poging om kompeterend te bly in die internasionale mark. Dit is noodsaaklik vir die sukses van ‘n broeiprogram om gebruik te maak van ‘n goeie genetiese basis met hoë vlakke van genetiese diversiteit en die suksesvolle behoud van die vlakke om so ‘n verbeterde lyn te skep. ‘n Groeiprestasie aanteken stelsel [Performance Recording Scheme (PRS)] is gestig as die eerste broeiprogram vir Haliotis midae wat gebruik maak van molekulêre tegnieke. Die doel van hierdie program was om die groeitempo van verboude perlemoen te verbeter om produksie tye te verkort. Die huidige studie het gebruik gemaak van 12 spesie-spesifieke mikrosatelliet merkers om ouerskap toe te ken aan ‘n groep vinnig-groeiende PRS-diere, soos geselekteer deur die perlemoen plase, om ‘n diverse generasie gekultiveerde diere te selekteer wat as broeidiere kan dien. Die invloed van standaard seleksie metodes op die genetiese diversitiet van ‘n populasie in vergelyking met genotipiese seleksie is ook ondersoek. Die ouerskap data is ook gebruik om differensiasie en vlakke van genetiese diversiteit tussen verboude perlemoene en wilde populasies vas te stel. Seleksie gebasseer op genetiese eienskappe het daarin geslaag om genetiese diversiteit te behou, terwyl diversiteit verlore gegaan het in die fenotipies geselekteerde populasies. Hierdie fenotipiese populasies het ook beduidend met mekaar sowel as met die wilde populasies verskil, terwyl genotipiese populasies soortgelyk was in hul genetiese samestelling en nie van die wilde populasies van die Weskus verskil het nie. Die broeidiere wat in die PRS broeiprogram gebruik is, was verteenwoordigend van die wilde populasies vanwaar hulle oorspronlik gekom het, met geen beduidende differensiasie tussen die broeidiere en die Wes kus populasies nie. Met die vergelyking van die broeidiere en hul ooreenstemmende nageslag, het dit geblyk dat slegs twee populasies ‘n beduidende verlies aan genetiese diversiteit getoon het, alhoewel al die nageslag beduidende populasie differensiasie met hul ouers getoon het. Hierdie bevindinge is toegeskryf aan oneweredige bydraes van die broeidiere tydens gameetvrystelling en die invloed van kunsmatige seleksie. Hierdie studie het ook vasgestel dat die verboude perlemoen populasies met sorg gebruik moet word om wilde populasies te herstel, aangesien hierdie populasies beduidend verskil het van wilde populasies van beide die Oos en Wes-kus. Hierdie studie het gevind dat dit moontlik is om genetiese diversiteit te behou deur diere te selekteer op grond van genotipiese eienskappe. Die verlies van diversiteit in sommige van die verboude perlemoen populasies en die beduidende verskil met die wilde populasies dui daarop dat diere in die gekultiveerde omgewing blootgestel word aan verskillende tipes seleksiedruk. Hierdie bevindinge beklemtoon die belang vir effektiewe bestuur van broeiery praktyke en genetiese monitering van broeidiere.af_ZA
dc.format.extent86 p., [70] p. : ill.
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectMicrosatellite markersen_ZA
dc.subjectHaliotis midaeen_ZA
dc.subjectPopulation geneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectGenetic diversityen_ZA
dc.subjectBreeding managementen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertations -- Geneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectTheses -- Geneticsen_ZA
dc.subjectAbalone -- Genetics -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectAbalone -- Breedingen_ZA
dc.titleMicrosatellite markers as a tool in genetic enhancement and husbandry of Haliotis midae : a South African case studyen_ZA
dc.typeThesis
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch University


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