SNP screening and validation in Haliotis midae

Blaauw, Sonja (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2012.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Haliotis midae (commonly referred to as perlemoen) is the only one of five endemic species in South Africa that is commercially valued both locally and internationally. Unfortunately, natural perlemoen populations have become a dwindling resource due to commercial exploitation, poaching and the influx of natural threats, such as the West Coast rock lobster, Jasus lalandii. To preserve the natural diversity and sustainability of natural populations as well as commercial stocks, genetic management and improvement of perlemoen is critical. Genetic management requires the utilisation of molecular markers, which aid in the construction of linkage maps and the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with economically significant traits. This will allow improvement of commercial stock management in terms of broodstock selection as well as provide valuable insight into natural population dynamics. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected as the marker of choice due to their successful employment as molecular markers and their wide distribution and abundance within the genomes of various marine species. This study focuses on the characterisation of novel SNPs from transcript sequences generated by Next Generation Sequencing technology. Approximately 40% of the transcripts facilitated the isolation of 105 putative markers, indicating a SNP frequency of ~1% within the H. midae genome. A subset of 24 markers, in addition to 24 previously developed markers, was characterised using the Illumina GoldenGate genotyping assay with the VeraCode technology, a medium to high-throughput genotyping technology. This is the first reported medium- to highthroughput characterisation of SNPs in H. midae. The selected markers were used to determine the efficiency and overall success rate of the GoldenGate platform. Marker characterisation was completed in both natural and commercial populations to determine the utility of these markers for genetic diversity and population structure inference. An 85% genotyping success rate was achieved with the platform. Statistical analysis indicated that the markers developed in this study are suitable for applications including population genetic structure inference, genetic diversity estimation and possibly other downstream applications such as linkage mapping. These markers are considered to be invaluable for future work regarding the genetic management and conservation of H. midae.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Haliotis midae (ook bekend as perlemoen) is die enigste van vyf inheemse spesies in Suid-Afrika wat noemenswaardige kommersiële waarde toon plaaslik sowel as internasionaal. Ongelukkig het kommersiële uitbuiting, wildstropery en natuurlike bedreiging (bv. die Weskus kreef Jasus lalandii), wilde perlemoen populasies noemenswaardig verminder. Dus, om natuurlike diversiteit en die voortbestaan van beide wilde en kommersiële populasies te beskerm, is genetiese bestuur en verbetering absoluut noodsaaklik. Genetiese bestuur vereis die gebruik van molekulêre merkers as ’n hulpmiddel in die opstellingvan koppelingskaarte, en die identifisering van die relevante kwantitatiewe eienskap loki (QTL) tipies geassosieer met ekonomies belangrike eienskappe. Die laasgenoemde beoog om kommersiële voorraad bestuur te verbeter, kragtens deur broeidier seleksie sowel as om insig te verskaf m.b.t. wilde bevolking dinamika. Enkel Nukleotied Polimorfismes (SNPs) is gekies as die toepaslike merker vanweë die omvattende toepaslikheid van hierdie merkers binne die genome van verskeie mariene spesies. Hierdie studie fokus op die karakterisering van nuwe SNPs vanuit transkript volgordes ontwikkel deur middel van Volgende Generasie Volgordebepaling (“Next Generation Sequencing”). ’n Beraamde 40% van transkripte het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van 105 potensiëlemerkers, aanduidend van ’n SNP frekwensie van ~1% binne die H. midae genoom. ’n Sub-versameling van 24 merkers, tesame met 24 bestaande merkers, is gekarakteriseer deur die Illumina GoldenGate genotiperings toets met die VeraCode tegnologie, ’n medium tot hoë deurvloei genotiperingstegnologie. Hierdie is die eerste berig van medium tot hoë deurvloei karakterisering van SNPs in H. midae. Die geselekteerde merkers is gebruik om die doeltreffendheid van die GoldenGate platform te bepaal. Merker karakterisering is uitgevoer in beide wilde en kommersiële bevolkings om die effektiewe bruikbaarheid van hierdie merkers m.b.t. genetiese diversiteit, en bevolking struktuur bepaling, te ondersoek. Die platform het ’n 85% genotiperingsukses syfer getoon. Statistiese analise dui daarop dat merkers ontwikkel tydens hierdie studie toepaslik is vir bevolking genetiese struktuur bepaling, genetiese diversiteitberaming en moontlik ook genetiese koppelingskartering. Hierdie merkers word bestempel as onmisbaar vir toekomstige navorsing in genetiese bestuur en bewaring van H. midae.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19976
This item appears in the following collections: