Assessment of wood degradation by Pycnoporus sanguineus when co-cultured with selected fungi

Van Heerden, Andrea (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-03)

Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is commonly known that a diversity of fungi, including yeasts, may occur on plant surfaces. Similarly, on fallen trees an ecological succession of different fungal species is known to occur during wood degradation. Some of these fungi may be pioneer fungi contributing to the initial degradation process, while others may be yeasts associated with the fruiting bodies of macro-fungi which in turn are able to utilize the more recalcitrant polymers in wood. Previously, it was revealed that an increase occurs in the wood degradation rate of certain white-rot fungi when co-cultured with selected yeast species. A well known inhabitant of decomposing trees is the white rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus. It was found by some that this fungus is capable of selective delignification while growing on the wood of poplar trees, while other authors found a simultaneous delignification pattern on Eucalyptus grandis trees. In the latter case cellulose and lignin are degraded simultaneously. We were interested in how yeasts occurring on the surface of P. sanguineus fruiting bodies, and the pioneer fungus Aspergillus flavipes, impact on wood degradation by this white-rot fungus. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) analyses were used to obtain an indication of the species composition of the culturable yeast community associated with fruiting bodies of P. sanguineus. The impact of the most dominant of these yeasts species, i.e. Pichia guilliermondii and Rhodotorula glutinis, as well as A. flavipes, on wood degradation by P. sanguineus was then determined by analyzing the major wood components after growth of co-cultures on hot water washed E. grandis wood chips. Co-cultures of P. sanguineus with the other fungi were prepared by inoculating the wood chips, contained in solid state bioreactors and supplemented with molasses and urea, with the an appropriate volume of fungal inoculum, resulting in an initial moisture content of 60%. After two weeks of incubation at 30°C with constant aeration, the chips were harvested. Standard protocol (TAPPI Standard Methods), commonly used by the paper and pulp industry, were then employed to determine the percentage cellulose, Klason Lignin, as well as polar and solvent-borne extractives in the chips. The resulting data were analyzed using box plots, as well as biplots. No degradation of Klason lignin was observed, while the percentage cellulose did decrease during fungal degradation. Taking into account the inherent shortcomings of the Klason Lignin determination, the results supported the findings of others that P. sanguineus shows a simultaneous delignification pattern while growing on E. grandis wood. In addition, it was found that the yeasts played no significant role in the degradation ability of P. sanguineus, while A. flavipes showed an antagonistic effect on P. sanguineus with respect to cellulose degradation. However, it was clear that the analytical methods used in this study were inadequate to accurately determine fungal degradation of wood. In addition, it was obvious that the methods used did not distinguish between fungal biomass and wood components. Nevertheless, the methods provided us with a fingerprint of each culture growing on E. grandis wood, allowing us to compare the chemical composition of the different cultures and the un-inoculated hot water washed wood chips. The question, therefore, arose whether the effect of a particular coculture, on the chemical composition of wood, differs between tree species. Consequently, chemical alterations in different tree species, induced by a P. sanguineus / A. flavipes co-culture, were investigated in the next part of the study. Wood chips originating from four tree species, i.e. Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, E. grandis, and Eucalyptus macarthurii, were inoculated with this co-culture. The culture conditions and subsequent analyses of the wood components were the same as in the first part of the study. From the box- and biplots constructed from the resulting data, it was clear that the chemical composition of each tree species were altered in a different manner by the coculture. Lignin content showed an apparent increase in A. mearnsii, while E. dunnii showed a decrease in cellulose content. The results indicate that wood of different tree species are degraded in a different manner and this phenomenon should be taken into account in selecting fungi for biopulping.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit is algemeen bekend dat 'n verskeidenheid fungi, insluitend giste, op plantoppervlaktes mag voorkom. Dit is ook bekend dat 'n ekologiese opeenvolging van verskillende fungusspesies tydens hout-afbraak op omgevalle bome voorkom. Van hierdie fungi mag pionierfungi wees wat bydra tot die aanvanklike afbraakproses, terwyl ander giste mag wees wat geassosieer word met die vrugliggame van makro-fungi, wat op hul beurt weer in staat is om die meer weerstandbiedende polimere in hout te benut. Dit is voorheen bekendgemaak dat daar 'n toename plaasvind in die tempo van houtafbraak deur sekere witvrot-fungi wanneer dit in ko-kulture met geselekteerde gisspesies voorkom. 'n Bekende bewoner van verrottende bome is die wit-vrotfungus Pycnoporus sanguineus. Dit is gevind dat hierdie fungus tot selektiewe delignifikasie in staat is terwyl dit op die hout van populierbome groei, terwyl ander outeurs 'n gelyktydige patroon van delignifisering op Eucalyptus grandis bome gevind het. In laasgenoemde geval is sellulose en lignien gelyktydig afgebreek. Ons was geïnteresseerd in die effek van giste op die oppervlak van vrugliggame van P. sanguineus, en die pionierfungus Aspergillus flavipes, op die houtafbraak deur hierdie wit-vrotfungus. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) analises is gevolglik gebruik om 'n aanduiding te kry van die spesiesamestelling van die kweekbare gisgemeenskap wat met die vrugliggame van P. sanguineus geassosieer word. Die impak van die mees dominante van hierdie gisspesies, naamlik Pichia guilliermondii en Rhodotorula glutinis, asook A. flavipes, op houtafbraak deur P. sanguineus is voorts bepaal deur die analise van die belangrikste houtkomponente na die kweek van ko-kulture op E. grandis houtskyfies wat met warm water gewas is. Ko-kulture van P. sanguineus met die ander fungi is voorberei deur die houtskyfies in vaste fase bioreaktore, aangevul met melasse en ureum, te inokuleer met 'n toepaslike volume van die fungus inokulum om 'n aanvanklike voginhoud van 60% te verkry. Na twee weke se inkubasie by 30°C met konstante belugting is die skyfies ge-oes. Standaard protokol (TAPPI Standard Methods), algemeen deur die papier en pulpindustrie gebruik, is ingespan om die persentasie sellulose, Klason Lignien, asook polêre en oplosmiddel-gedraagde ekstrakte in die skyfies te bepaal. Die gevolglike data is geanaliseer deur gebruik te maak van box plots en biplots. Daar is geen afbraak van Klason Lignien bespeur nie, terwyl die persentasie sellulose wel toegeneem het tydens fungus degradasie. Met die inherente tekortkominge van die Klason Lignien bepaling inaggenome, het die resultate die bevindings ondersteun van andere wat getoon het dat P. sanguineus 'n gelyktydige delignifikasiepatroon openbaar terwyl dit op E. grandis hout groei. Daarby is dit gevind dat die giste geen beduidende rol in die afbraakvermoeë van P. sanguineus gespeel het nie, terwyl A. flavipes 'n antagonisiese effek ten opsigte van die sellulose degradering van P. sanguineus getoon het. Dit was egter duidelik dat die analitiese metodes wat in hierdie studie gebruik is, onvoldoende was om die degradering van hout akkuraat te bepaal. Daarby was dit duidelik dat die metodes nie tussen fungus biomassa en houtkomponente kon onderskei nie. Nogtans het die metodes 'n vingerafdruk verskaf van elke kultuur wat op E. grandis hout groei, wat ons toegelaat het om die chemiese samestelling van die verskillende kulture en die ongeïnokuleerde, met warm water gewasde houtskyfies te vergelyk. Die vraag het gevolglik ontstaan of die effek van 'n bepaalde ko-kultuur op die chemiese samestelling van hout van boomspesie tot boomspesie verskil. Gevolglik is die chemiese wisselinge in verskillende boomspesies, geïnduseer deur 'n P. sanguineus / A. flavipes ko-kultuur, in die volgende gedeelte van die studie ondersoek. Houtskyfies van vier boomspesies, naamlik Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, E. grandis, en Eucalyptus macarthurii, is met hierdie ko-kultuur geïnokuleer. Die kultuurkondisies en daaropvolgende analises van die houtkomponente was dieselfde as in die eerste deel van die studie. Van die box- en biplots wat van die resultate getrek is, is dit duidelik dat die chemiese samestelling van elke boomspesie op 'n verskillende manier deur die ko-kulture verander is. Lignien-inhoud het ’n waarskynlike toename getoon in A. mearnsii, terwyl E. dunnii 'n afname in sellulose-inhoud getoon het. Die resultate toon dat hout van verskillende boomspesies op verskillende maniere afgebreek word en dat hierdie fenomeen in aanmerking geneem moet word wanneer fungi vir bioverpulping geselekteer word.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/19884
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