Rise in rifampicin-monoresistant tuberculosis in Western Cape, South Africa
SETTING: Brewelskloof Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa. OBJECTIVES: To verify the perceived increase in rifampicin monoresistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) in the Cape Winelands-Overberg region and to identify potential risk factors. DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study of trends in RMR-TB over a 5-year period (2004-2008), followed by a case-control study of RMR and isoniazid (INH) monoresistant TB cases, diagnosed from April 2007 to March 2009, to assess for risk factors. RESULTS: The total number of RMR-TB cases more than tripled, from 31 in 2004 to 98 in 2008. The calculated doubling time was 1.63 years (95%CI 1.18-2.66). For the assessment of risk factors, 95 RMR-TB cases were objectively verified on genotypic and phenotypic analysis. Of 108 specimens genotypically identified as RMR cases, 13 (12%) were misidentified multidrugresistant TB. On multivariate analysis, previous use of antiretroviral therapy (OR 6.4, 95%CI 1.3-31.8), alcohol use (OR 4.8, 95%CI 2.0-11.3) and age ≥40 years (OR 5.8, 95%CI 2.4-13.6) were significantly associated with RMR-TB. CONCLUSION: RMR-TB is rapidly increasing in the study setting, particularly among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Routine drug susceptibility testing should be considered in all TB-HIV co-infected patients, and absence of INH resistance should be confirmed phenotypically if genotypic RMR-TB is detected. © 2012 The Union.