Illuminating the interrelated immune and endocrine adaptations after multiple exposures to short immobilization stress by in vivo blocking of IL-6
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ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS is known to activate the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in transiently increased release of inflammatory cytokines (28) and glucocorticoids (45). In contrast, multiple exposures to stress lead to adaptive responses in target tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and immune cells. These responses may be influenced by the severity of the stressor and the duration of the stress exposure. The endocrine and cytokine responses are known to be interrelated but are complex and still incompletely understood.