'n Program vir die huweliksontwikkeling van migrante egpare

Botha, Jan Adriaan Jacobus (2007-03)

Dissertation (DPhil)--University of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study focuses on the evaluation of a programme for the marital development of migrant couples. Constructs relevant to marriage and various theories on family functioning are discussed in detail. The three variables included in most theories are adaptability, cohesion and communication, as emphasised in the Circumplex model (Olson, Sprenkle & Russel, 1979), which forms the basis for this study. The importance of marriage development through enrichment programmes is discussed, and it appears that prevention is described as the most important form of therapy. The research was divided into three phases. In phase I, 25 couples living in South Africa and 25 South African couples living in England were used. The following unique elements causing tension in marriages of migrant couples were identified: family unit, role responsibilities, spiritual, emotional and physical matters, external influences and communication. In phase II the literature was studied to determine which programmes already exist. This knowledge, in conjunction with the results of phase I of this research, was used to develop a unique programme for migrant marriages. This newly developed programme focuses on the following aspects of marriage: conflict resolution; the understanding and negotiation of the different roles in a marital relationship; the role of external factors; and physical, emotional and spiritual fulfilment in the relationship. Phase III of the research related to the presentation and evaluation of this newly developed programme in order to assess the impact thereof on the psychofortologic development of migrant couples. Participants were divided into three groups. The programme was evaluated by presenting and comparing an experimental group (10 couples living in England) with two control groups (Control Group 1, 10 couples and Control Group 2, 5 couples living in England). All three groups completed questionnaires as a pre-test. The experimental group attended the new programme, Control Group 1 received no intervention, and Control Group 2 engaged in the alternative intervention. The groups then completed questionnaires directly after the intervention and again three months later. The aspects of marriage relationships where significant development took place, were: satisfaction with religious orientation, sexual intimacy, social intimacy, and a more constructive handling of conflict. A further aspect whereby participating couples benefited from the programme was the understanding of each other's strengths and weaknesses. Some of the recommendations include that more time should be allowed to talk about priorities, and also that longer discussion times between sessions should be allowed. The program should preferably be presented as an “island situation”. An effective follow-up of participants should be incorporated into the programme. In future research it should be determined whether any existing programme addresses the specific needs of the target group. Should this not be the case, it is proposed that a new programme is developed.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie ondersoek fokus op die evaluering van ’n program vir die huweliksontwikkeling van migrante-egpare. Konstrukte wat met die huwelik verband hou, asook verskillende teorieë oor gesinsfunksionering, word bespreek. Die drie gesinsveranderlikes wat in die meeste teorieë voorkom, is aanpasbaarheid, kohesie en kommunikasie. Hierdie aspekte word beklemtoon deur die Circumplex-model (Olson, Sprenkle & Russel, 1979), wat ook as grondslag van hierdie ondersoek dien. Die belangrikheid van huweliksontwikkeling deur verrykkingsprogramme is bespreek, waaruit blyk dat voorkoming die belangrikste vorm van terapie is. Die navorsingsproses is in drie fases verdeel. In Fase I het 25 egpare wat in Suid-Afrika woon en 25 Suid-Afrikaanse egpare wat in Engeland woon aan die ondersoek deelgeneem. Die volgende aspekte wat spanning veroorsaak in migrantehuwelike is geïdentifiseer: gesinseenheid, rolverantwoordelikhede, geestelike sake, emosionele nabyheid, fisieke sake, eksterne invloede en kommunikasie. Fase II van die ondersoek het behels dat die literatuur bestudeer is om vas te stel watter programme reeds bestaan en hoe bestaande kennis, tesame met die resultate van Fase I van hierdie ondersoek, gebruik kon word om ’n unieke program vir migrante-huwelike te ontwikkel. Die nuut ontwikkelde program fokus op die volgende huweliksaspekte: konflikhantering; die verstaan en onderhandeling van die onderskeie rolle in die huwelik; die rol van eksterne invloede op die huwelik; en fisiese, emosionele en geestelike tevredenheid binne die huweliksverhouding. In Fase III van die ondersoek is die nuut ontwikkelde program aangebied en geëvalueer om die impak daarvan op migrante-ontwikkeling te bepaal. Deelnemende Suid-Afrikaanse egpare is in Engeland geïdentifiseer en in drie groepe verdeel, naamlik; tien egpare in die eksperimentele groep, tien egpare in een kontrolegroep en vyf egpare in ’n tweede kontrolegroep. Deelnemers in al drie groepe het dieselfde vraelyste as die deelnemers in Fase I van die ondersoek voltooi. Dit het gedien as die voormeting. Daarna is die voorlopige program vir die eksperimentele groep aangebied, terwyl die eerste kontrolegroep geen intervensie ontvang het nie en die tweede kontrolegroep ’n alternatiewe intervensie deurloop het. Direk na afloop van die program het deelnemers van die eksperimentele groep en die tweede kontrolegroep weer dieselfde vraelyste voltooi. Drie maande later het deelnemers van al drie groepe as tweede nameting weer dieselfde vraelyste voltooi. Die aspekte van die huweliksverhouding waar beduidende ontwikkeling plaasgevind het, was tevredenheid met godsdiensoriëntasie, seksuele intimiteit, sosiale intimiteit en meer konstruktiewe konflikhantering. ’n Ander aspek waarby deelnemers aan die program baat gevind het, was die beter verstaan van mekaar se sterk- en swakpunte. Enkele aanbevelings is dat meer tyd ingeruim word om oor prioriteite binne die huwelik te praat, dat besprekingstye tussen die verskillende sessies verleng word, dat ’n program verkieslik as ’n eilandsituasie aangebied word, en dat opvolgaksies met deelnemende egpare deel van die program moet wees. Daar moet in toekomstige navorsing oor huweliksontwikkeling vasgestel word of ’n bestaande program die behoeftes van die spesifieke teikengroep aanspreek, en indien nie, word voorgestel dat ’n nuwe program ooreenkomstig hulle omstandighede en behoeftes ontwikkel word.

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