Investigation into the suitability of spring triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) for bio-ethanol production in the Western Cape

Tsupko, Yuriy Vadimovich (2009-12)

MScAgric

Thesis (MSc (Genetics))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the Western Cape small grain cereals, triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack ex A. Camus) in particular, appear to be among the most promising starch-carrying raw materials for the production of bio-ethanol. A core group of cultivars and lines from the Stellenbosch University Plant Breeding Laboratory spring triticale breeding programme were subjected to initial testing for the purpose of ethanol production. They underwent multi-location field-testing across six (season 2006–2007) and nine (season 2007–2008) locations representing the Western Cape cereal production area. Climatic conditions during the study were characterised as generally favourable, especially in the 2007 season. During the season, trials were visited in order to make in situ observations. Disease susceptibility was given specific attention. After harvesting, grain yield (kg.ha-1), test weight (kg.HL-1), total starch content in whole grain (%), amylose/amylopectin ratio, protein content (%), ethanol output (L.tonne-1) and ethanol yield (L.ha-1) were analysed. Near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy calibration models were developed for moisture and starch contents. The best calibration based on whole grain spectra for moisture content had RPD = 1.691, R2 = 0.657 and SEP = 0.271%, and for starch content RPD = 1.646, R2 = 0.634 and SEP = 1.356%. Calibrations developed from milled grain showed better results for moisture content RPD = 2.526, R2 = 0.843, SEP = 0.182%, and for starch content RPD = 1.741, R2 = 0.673, SEP = 1.277%. These calibrations are suitable for rough screening of samples. In the 2006 season, starch yield was highly positively correlated with grain yield (R2 = 0.988, P <0.001). Both starch yield and grain yield were positively correlated with days to heading (R2 = 0.533 and R2 = 0.556, respectively; P <0.001). The 2007 season was characterised by a generally higher starch yield (2952– 3142kg.ha-1, 95%CI) compared to the 2006 season (2077–2315kg.ha-1, 95%CI). Starch yield was strongly positively correlated with grain yield (R2 = 0.975, P <0.001). Test weight demonstrated weak positive correlation with ethanol yield (R2 = 0.238, P <0.01) and grain yield (R2 = 0.279, P <0.001). Mean ethanol output ranged between 466–477L.tonne-1 at the 95%CI. Ethanol output was demonstrated to be more dependent on starch and other polysaccharides accessibility to enzymatic digestion than on the total starch content as such. The best lines for ethanol output in the 2007 season were G2, D3 and H2 for the Swartland region, and D3, G2 and D1 for the Overberg region. The best triticale lines under investigation showed their potential from a biological point of view to be a suitable crop for ethanol production in the Western Cape, with the achieved ethanol yield ranging between 2446–2625L.ha-1 at the 95%CI. For the Swartland region the best genotypes for ethanol yield were D1, H1 and D2, and for the Overberg H1 and G2. The 23 best lines were selected from the elite and senior blocks, and then used for the establishment of a recurrent massselection pre-breeding block.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In die Wes-Kaap is kleingrane, meer spesifiek korog (×Triticosecale Wittmack ex A. Camus), van die mees belowende styseldraende rou-materiale vir die produksie van bio-etanol. ‘n Kern versameling van kultivars en telerslyne van die Universiteit van Stellenbosch se Planteteeltlaboratorium se lente korogteeltprogram is blootgestel aan aanvanklike toetsing met die doel om etanol produksie te meet. Die materiaal het veldtoetsing ondergaan oor verskeie lokaliteite gedurende die 2006–2007 (ses lokaliteite) en 2007–2008 (nege lokaliteite) seisoene wat verteenwoordigend was van die Wes-Kaapse produksie gebied. Klimaatstoestande gedurende die studie kan beskryf word as gunstig, veral gedurende die 2007 seisoen. Gedurende die groeiseisoen is proeflokaliteite gereeld besoek ten einde in situ observasies te kon maak, siektevatbaarheid het veral aandag geniet. Na die oes van proewe was graanopbrengs (kg.ha-1), hektolitermassa (kg.HL-1), totale-styselinhoud in heelgraan (%), amilose/amilopektien-verhouding, proteïeninhoud (%), etanolopbrengs (L.ton-1) en etanolopbrengs per hektaar (L.ha-1) gemeet. Naby-infrarooispektroskopie kalibrasies was ontwikkel vir vog- en styselinhoud. Die beste kalibrasies vir heelgraan voginhoud het ‘n RDP = 1.691, R2 = 0.657 en SEP = 0.271% en vir styselinhoud RPD = 1.646, R2 = 0.634 en SEP = 1.356% opgelewer. Die kalibrasies gebaseer op meel was aansienlik beter vir voginhoud RPD = 2.526, R2 = 0.843 en SEP = 0.182%, sowel as vir styselinhoud RPD = 1.741, R2 = 0.673 en SEP = 1.277%. Die kalibrasies is bruikbaar vir aanvanklike sifting van monsters. 5 Gedurende die 2006 seisoen het styselinhoud en graanopbrangs ‘n baie hoë korrelasie (R2 = 0.988, P <0.001) getoon. Beide stysel- en graanopbrengs was positief gekorreleerd met dae tot aar (R2 = 0.533 en R2 = 0.556; P <0.001). Die 2007 seisoen is gekenmerk deur ‘n hoër styselopbrengs (2952– 3142kg.ha-1, 95%VI) teenoor die 2006 seisoen (2077–2315kg.ha-1, 95%VI). Styselopbrengs was positief gekorreleerd met graanopbrengs (R2 = 0.975, P <0.001). Hektolitermassa het swak korrelasie getoon met etanolopbrengs (R2 = 0.238, P <0.01) en graanopbrengs (R2 = 0.279, P <0.01). Gemiddelde etanolopbrengs het gewissel tussen 466–477L.ton-1 by 95%VI. Data het aangedui dat etanolopbrengs meer aangewese is op stysel en ander polisakkariedverbindings se ensiematiese toeganklikheid eerder as totale stysel aanwesig. Die beste lyne wat etanolopbrangs betref in 2007 was G2, D3 en H2 vir die Swartland en D3, G2 en D1 vir die Overberg. Van die koroglyne wat deel was van die ondersoek het goeie potensiaal getoon, uit ‘n suiwer biologiese oogpunt, as gewas vir die produksie van etanol in die Wes-Kaap met ‘n gerealiseerde etanolopbrengs in die omgewing van 2446-2625L.ha-1 by 95%VI. In die Swartland was die beste genotipes D1, H1 en D2 en in die Overberg H1 en G2. Die beste 23 lyne is geselekteer uit die elite en senior telingsblokke en aangewend in die vestiging van ‘n herhalende-seleksie voortelingsblok.

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