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The magnitude and duration of post exercise hypotension after land and water exercise

Esterhuyse, Aletta Maria (2009-12)

Thesis (M Sport Sc (Sport Science))--University of Stellenbosch, 2009.


ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is well-known that acute and chronic aerobic and resistance exercise results in decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive individuals. There is little evidence that water exercise has a similar effect on BP response. There is also no certainty regarding the magnitude and duration of post exercise hypotension (PEH) after either land or water-based exercise. Most studies were also performed under controlled laboratory conditions and very few characterised the PEH response under real life conditions. The current study endeavoured to examine the magnitude and duration of PEH after an acute session of water- and land-based exercise during free living conditions in persons with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty-one men and women (aged 52 ± 10 years) volunteered for the study. All participants were pre-hypertensive or hypertensive. Participants completed a no exercise control session, a water exercise session and a combined aerobic and resistance land exercise session in random order. After all three sessions, participants underwent 24 hour monitoring using an Ergoscan ambulatory BP monitoring device. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored to determine changes from resting values after each session and to compare the PEH responses between land and water exercise. Overall, the land exercise treatment caused a 3.6 mmHg lower average SBP over 24 hours than the control treatment (P = 0.04). The average difference over 24 hours between the water and control treatments was 2.2 mmHg and between land and water exercise it was 1.5 mmHg (P > 0.05). During daytime, both land and water exercise resulted in significantly lower SBP (12.7 and 11.3 mmHg) compared to the control session (2.3 mmHg). The PEH response lasted for 24 hours after land exercise and nine hours after water exercise. There was no difference in the daytime DBP for the three treatments (P > 0.05). Although all three groups showed significant reductions during night time, both exercise treatments showed greater nocturnal falls in SBP, DBP and MAP than the control treatment.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit is alombekend dat akute en chroniese aërobiese- en weerstandsoefening tot ‘n afname in bloeddruk (BD) lei in persone met hipertensie. Daar is egter min getuienis dat wateroefening dieselfde effek op die bloeddruk respons het. Daar is ook nie sekerheid oor die grootte en duur van post-oefening hipotensie na water- of landoefening nie. Die meeste studies is onder gekontrolleerde laboratorium omstandighede gedoen en min resultate is beskikbaar onder alledaagse lewensomstandighede. Die huidige studie het gepoog om die grootte en duur van die post-oefening hipotensie respons in persone met ligte tot matige hipertensie onder alledaagse omstandighede na ‘n akute sessie van water- en landgebaseerde oefening te ondersoek. Een-en-twintig mans en vrouens (ouderdom 52 ± 10 jaar) het ingewillig om aan die studie deel te neem. Alle deelnemers was hipertensief of pre-hipertensief. Alle deelnemers het ‘n kontrolesessie, ‘n wateroefeningsessie en ‘n gekombineerde aërobiese en weerstands landoefensessie, in lukrake volgorde, voltooi. Na elke sessie het die deelnemers 24 uur bloeddrukmonitering met ‘n Ergoscan wandelende bloeddruk monitor ondergaan. Sistoliese bloeddruk (SBD), diastoliese bloeddruk (DBD), gemiddelde arteriële bloeddruk en harttempo (HT) is gemonitor om die veranderinge vanaf rustende waardes na elke sessie te bepaal en om die hipotensiewe respons na land- en wateroefening te vergelyk. Landoefening het ‘n 3.6 mmHg laer gemiddelde SBD oor 24 uur tot gevolg gehad in vergelyking met die kontrolesessie (P = 0.04). Die gemiddelde verskil oor 24 uur tussen die water- en kontrolesessies was 2.2 mmHg en 1.5 mmHg tussen die land en water oefensessies (P > 0.05). Gedurende die dag het beide die land- and wateroefening gelei tot beduidende laer SBD (12.7 en 11.3 mmHg) in vergelyking met die kontrolesessie (2.3 mmHg). Die post-oefening hipotensie het 24 uur geduur na die landoefening en nege uur na die wateroefening. Daar was geen verskil in DBD gedurende die dag tussen die drie groepe nie (P > 0.05).

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