Neurocognitive outcomes in HIV and childhood trauma

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dc.contributor.advisor Seedat, Soraya en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Spies, Georgina en_ZA
dc.contributor.other Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Dept. of Psychiatry. en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-11-10T08:01:16Z en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2011-12-06T08:36:35Z
dc.date.available 2012-07-31T22:10:03Z
dc.date.issued 2011-12 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/18097 en_ZA
dc.description Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch Univesity, 2011. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract ENGLISH ABSTRACT: It is well established that South African women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and gender based violence. Research to date has provided evidence for neurocognitive decline in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS and in individuals who have experienced early life trauma. However, many gaps remain in our knowledge about the neurocognitive profile of HIV and childhood trauma in South African women. The present study focused on the neurocognitive effects of HIV infection and childhood trauma, both separately and in combination in South African women. The primary aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive functioning in HIV-positive and matched HIVnegative controls, with and without a history of childhood trauma. Moreover, the study sought to assess the synergistic relationship between HIV and childhood trauma in influencing neurocognitive outcomes, a relationship which has not yet been investigated. A neuropsychological battery sensitive to HIV-related impairments was administered to 83 HIV-positive and 47 matched HIV-negative women with histories of childhood trauma. A history of childhood trauma was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire short form (CTQ-SF). Forty eight of the 83 HIV-positive women were exposed to childhood trauma. Among the control subjects, a total of twenty women were exposed to childhood trauma. Findings of the present study revealed neurocognitive deficits in memory and executive functions. Results demonstrated significant HIV effects in memory (HVLT-R learning and delay trials), and executive functions (Halstead Category test). Similarly, a trauma effect was evident in delayed recall (HVLT-R delay). Moreover, results revealed a significant interaction effect between HIV status and trauma status on the WAIS-III Symbol Search Task, a task of psychomotor speed. However, HIV-negative controls with a history of childhood trauma scored the highest on this task. Although this finding was unexpected, it may suggest that psychomotor speed may not be a sensitive or discriminating test of childhood trauma in healthy adults. The present study demonstrated evidence for HIV and trauma effects in the ability domains of learning and delayed recall and executive functions. Although the present study did not find evidence for a synergistic relationship between HIV and trauma, it did provide evidence for both HIV and trauma effects on neurocognition, a finding in keeping with previous studies. Future research should be prospective in nature and should better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood trauma to neurocognitive outcomes, as well as the mediators and moderators of these outcomes. en_ZA
dc.description.abstract AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Dit is alombekend dat Suid-Afrikaanse vroue buite verhouding swaar deur MIV/vigs en geslagsgebaseerde geweld getref word. Navorsing tot dusver lewer bewyse van neurokognitiewe verswakking by individue met MIV/vigs sowel as individue wat vroeg in hulle lewe reeds trauma ervaar het. Tog is daar steeds vele gapings in ons kennis oor die neurokognitiewe profiel met betrekking tot MIV en kindertrauma onder Suid- Afrikaanse vroue. Hierdie studie konsentreer op die neurokognitiewe uitwerking van MIV-infeksie en kindertrauma, afsonderlik sowel as gesamentlik, op Suid-Afrikaanse vroue. Die hoofdoel van die studie was om neurokognitiewe funksionering by MIV-positiewe vroue te bepaal en dit met gepaste MIV-negatiewe kontrolepersone te vergelyk, met én sonder 'n geskiedenis van kindertrauma. Daarbenewens wou die studie die sinergistiese verwantskap tussen MIV en kindertrauma in hul impak op neurokognitiewe uitkomste bepaal – 'n verwantskap wat tot dusver nog nie ondersoek is nie. 'n Neurosielkundige toetsbattery wat gevoelig is vir MIV-verwante swakhede is onder 83 MIV-positiewe vroue en 47 gepaste MIV-negatiewe kontrolepersone met 'n geskiedenis van kindertrauma afgeneem. 'n Geskiedenis van kindertrauma is met behulp van die kort weergawe van die kindertraumavraelys (CTQ-SF) vasgestel. Agt-en-veertig van die 83 MIV-positiewe vroue is as kinders aan trauma blootgestel. Van die kontrolegroep het 20 vroue in hul kindertyd trauma beleef. Die studie het neurokognitiewe tekorte in korttermyngeheue én uitvoerende funksies aan die lig gebring. Die resultate het 'n beduidende MIV-verwante uitwerking op korttermyngeheue (hersiene Hopkins- verbale leer-en-vertragingstoets, oftewel HVLT-R) sowel as uitvoerende funksies (Halstead-kategorietoets) getoon. Eweneens het die studie op 'n duidelike traumaverwante uitwerking op herinneringsvermoë (HVLT-R-vertraging) gedui. Daarbenewens het die WAIS-II- (Wechsler-volwassene-intelligensieskaal) simboolsoekopdrag – 'n psigomotoriese spoedtoets – 'n beduidende wisselwerkingseffek tussen MIV-status en traumastatus getoon. Tog het MIV-negatiewe kontrolepersone met 'n geskiedenis van kindertrauma die beste in hierdie opdrag gevaar. Hoewel hierdie bevinding verrassend was, kan dit daarop dui dat psigomotoriese spoed dalk nie 'n gevoelige of diskriminerende toets van kindertrauma by gesonde volwassenes is nie. Die studie het bewys gelewer van MIV- en traumaverwante uitwerkings op korttermyngeheue en uitvoerende funksies. Hoewel die ondersoek nie bewyse van 'n sinergistiese verwantskap tussen MIV en trauma kon vind nie, het dit wél bevestig dat MIV en trauma neurokognitiewe werking beïnvloed – 'n bevinding wat in pas is met vorige studies. Toekomstige navorsing behoort ondersoekend te wees en die aard, felheid en tydgebondenheid van die verwantskap tussen kindertrauma en neurokognitiewe uitkomste, sowel as die mediator- en moderatorveranderlikes van hierdie uitkomste, beter te omskryf. af_ZA
dc.format.extent 253 p.
dc.language.iso en_ZA en_ZA
dc.publisher Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University en_ZA
dc.subject AIDS (Disease) in women -- South Africa en_ZA
dc.subject HIV positive women -- South Africa en_ZA
dc.subject Childhood trauma -- South Africa en_ZA
dc.subject Cognition disorders en_ZA
dc.subject Theses -- Psychiatry en_ZA
dc.subject Dissertations -- Psychiatry en_ZA
dc.title Neurocognitive outcomes in HIV and childhood trauma en_ZA
dc.type Thesis en_ZA


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