Antioxidant intake in paediatric oncology patients

Slegtenhorst, Sonja (Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background: The role of antioxidants and adequate nutrition in the prevention and course of cancer treatment is globally recognised in nullifying the effects of free radicals and increasing the nutritional status of children during treatment. Objective: To investigate whether children with cancer meet their Dietary Reference Values and Safe Intakes for antioxidants, energy and protein. Design: Single centre prospective study. Setting: Children were recruited from the East of England Primary Treatment Centre using convenience sampling over 8 months. Forty-two children and adolescents diagnosed with a Solid tumour, Lymphoma or Leukaemia were eligible for data analysis (n=20 male; n=22 female). Method: Data was collected with an Estimated Food Record (EFR) in the 1st (EFR1) and 3rd month (EFR2) post-diagnosis. In the week following EFR completion, parents and/or children were contacted to complete four non-consecutive days of 24-hr food recalls. Data was categorised into diet alone, diet + food supplement (FS), tube feeding (tube) or diet + multi-vitamin-mineral supplementation (VMS). Malnutrition was determined by weight-for-age z-scores. Nutrient intake was compared to the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and the Lower Recommended Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Result: The sample consisted of 33% (n=14) diagnosed with Leukaemia, 24% (n=10) with Lymphoma and 43% (n=18) with Solid tumours. Sixty seven percent (n=28) underwent chemotherapy and 33% (n=14) a combination of therapies. Significant correlations were seen between the assessment tools in the diet alone category for both months for; vitamins A, C, E, selenium and protein and for EFR1 for zinc and energy. In both months greater numbers of children achieved ≥100% of requirements for diet + VMS (EFR 1; p<0.05; EFR2 p<0.05) than for other feeding modes. Vitamin C achieved the highest intakes compared to the RNI at 773% (EFR1) and 829% (EFR2). Intakes above 200% of the RNI were seen for vitamins A, C, E, selenium and zinc. No significant differences were seen between modes of feeding in either month for selenium or zinc. Vitamin A (EFR1≤ 100% diet alone p<0.05) and zinc (EFR1≤ 100% diet alone p=0.02) met the least of the LRNI in the 1st month compared to other antioxidants. No statistical significant difference was observed between the number of children attaining their EAR’s between the 3 modes of feeding in the 1st month and 3rd month. In the 1st month 27% (n=8) of participants consumed vitamin and/or mineral supplements, 18% in the 3rd month (n=4). In the 1st month 5% (n=2) of children were moderately malnourished and 10% (n=4) in 3rd month. Conversely in the 1st month 3% (n=1) were overweight and 3% (n=1) obese; the leukaemia group predominant. Conclusion: The research tools showed good correlation. Children using vitamin and/or mineral supplements mostly achieved their RNI’s compared to other feeding modes. Across feeding modes some children achieved antioxidant intakes above 200% RNI. LRNI’s on diet alone were not achieved for vitamin A and zinc. The study showed Leukaemics as having a higher prevalence of obesity. More research is required to determine the clinical implications of these findings.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond: Die rol van anti-oksidante en voldoende voeding in die voorkoming en verloop van kanker behandeling word wêreldwyd erken vir vernietiging van die effek van vry radikale en die verbetering van voedingstatus van kinders tydens behandeling. Doelwit: Om ondersoek in te stel of kinders met kanker hul Dieet Verwysingswaardes en Veilige Innames vir anti-oksidante, energie en proteïen bereik. Ontwerp: Enkel sentrum prospektiewe studie. Omgewing: Kinders was gewerf deur middel van gerieflikheidsteekproefneming oor 8 maande vanaf die “East of England Primary Treatment Centre”. Twee-en-veertig kinders en adolessente gediagnoseer met 'n Soliede tumor, Limfoom of Leukemie het in aanmerking gekom vir dataanalise (n=20 manlik, n=22 vroulik). Metode: Data was ingesamel met ‘n Geskatte Voedsel Rekord (GVR) in die eerste (GVR1) en derde maand (GVR2) na diagnose. In die week na voltooiing van die GVR is ouers en/of kinders gekontak om vier onopeenvolgende dae van 24-uur herroepe te voltooi. Data was verdeel in dieet alleen, dieet + voedsel supplement (VS), buisvoeding (buis) of dieet + multi-vitamien-mineraal supplementasie (VMS). Wanvoeding was bepaal deur middel van gewig-vir-ouderdom z-tellings. Nutriënt inname was vergelyk met die Aanbevole Nutriënt Inname (ANI), die Geskatte Gemiddelde Behoeftes (GGB) en die Laer Aanbevole Nutriënt Inname (LANI). Resultate: Die steekproef het bestaan uit 33% (n=14) gediagnoseer met Leukemie, 24% (n=10) Limfoom en 43% (n=18) Soliede tumore. Sewe-en-sestig persent (n=28) het chemoterapie ontvang en 33% (n=14) ‘n kombinasie van terapieë. Betekenisvolle korrelasies was waargeneem tussen die assesseringsinstrumente in die dieet alleen kategorie vir beide maande vir vitamiene A, C, E, selenium en proteïen en vir GVR1 ook vir sink en energie. In beide maande het ‘n groter aantal kinders ≥100% van hul behoeftes bereik vr dieet+VMS (GVR1; p<0.05; GVR2 p<0.05) as vir ander modi van voeding. Vitamien C het die hoogste innames bereik vergeleke met die ANI teen 773% (GVR1) en 829% (GVR2). Innames bo 200% van die ANI was waargeneem vir vitamiene A, C, E, selenium en sink. Geen betekenisvolle verskille was waargeneem tussen modi van voeding in enige maand vir selenium en sink nie. Vitamien A (GVR1≤100% dieet alleen p<0.05) en sink (GVR1≤100% dieet alleen p=0.02) het die minste van die LANI bereik in die eerste maand vergeleke met ander anti-oksidante. Geen statisties beduidende verskil was waargeneem tussen die aantal kinders wat hul GGB’s bereik het tussen die 3 voedingswyses in die eerste en derde maande nie. In die eerste maand het 27% (n=8) van deelnemers vitamien en/of mineraal supplemente ingeneem, en 18% (n=4) in die derde maand. In die eerste maand was 5% (n=2) van kinders matig wangevoed en 10% (n=4) in die derde maand. In die eerste maand was 3% (n=1) van kinders oorgewig en 3% (n=1) vetsugtig, die leukemie groep spesifiek. Gevolgtrekking: Die navorsingsinstrumente het goeie korrelasie getoon. Kinders wat vitamien en/of mineraal supplemente gebruik het het meestal hul ANI’s bereik vergeleke met ander modi van voeding. Oor voeding modi het sommige kinders anti-oksidant innames bo 200% ANI bereik. LANI’s op dieet alleen was nie bereik vir Vitamien A en sink nie. Hierdie studie het aangetoon dat dié met Leukemia ‘n hoër prevalensie van oorgewig/vetsug getoon het. Meer navorsing is nodig om die kliniese implikasies van die bevindinge te bepaal.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/18050
This item appears in the following collections: