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dc.contributor.advisorSamways, Michael J.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKehinde, Temitope Olatayoen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Conservation Ecology and Entomology.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2011-11-15T09:37:38Zen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2011-12-05T13:17:04Z
dc.date.available2011-11-15T09:37:38Zen_ZA
dc.date.available2011-12-05T13:17:04Z
dc.date.issued2011-12en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17980
dc.descriptionThesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Both taxonomic diversity and diversity of species interaction networks are experiencing declines as a result of agricultural intensification at habitat and landscape scales. Reversing this trend is a key conservation issue, particularly for important functional groups such as flower-visiting insects and the networks within which they interact. This is of great concern in regions of high conservation priority such as the Cape Floristic Region (CFR), known for its high level of floral and faunal endemism and exceptional species turnover. Holistic approach to conservation in agricultural landscapes involves both preservation of natural land and wildlife friendly management of the farm land to achieve conservation targets. The value of these extensive management approaches is yet to be fully assessed, especially in perennial systems such as vineyards. I examined here the effects of vineyard management and landscape context on species richness and abundance of flower-visiting insects and their species interaction networks. Possible taxon specific effects were verified. I also investigated whether vineyards under organic and conventional management homogenized insect-flower interaction networks and whether vineyards with different management practices vary in patterns of species turnover. I sampled flower-visiting insects and their interactions in organic and conventional vineyards, and in natural reference sites. Inclusion of natural reference sites enabled me to make management recommendations for patches of natural vegetation in CFR agricultural landscape. Statistical models showed taxon-specific benefit of organic farm management, and of landscape (distance to natural habitat). There was benefit to monkey beetles (Scarabaeidae) but not to bees (Apidae). Organic vineyards had a higher number of insect-flower interactions than conventional ones, but vineyards under the two types of management were similar in terms of other important network indices. However, networks of the vineyards were more nested than the natural sites, indicating that they may be potentially more stable to perturbation and random extinctions. Multivariate dispersion tests revealed insect-flower interaction networks were not homogenized by both organic and conventional vineyards across the landscapes. I also found, through additive partitioning, that organic and conventional vineyards were similar in terms of species turnover of bees and flowering plants. The findings of this study provide heuristic value to current debates on the value of vineyard habitats for insect conservation. Both organic and conventional vineyards that promote sustainable management of the non-crop floral vegetation between vineyard rows are potential solutions for conservation of flower-visiting insects and their interactions. Also, attention has to be paid to the quality and connectivity of the natural habitat patches that are within CFR agricultural landscape. Site specific management and assessment of the value of these landscape elements is important. Management approaches such as carefully controlled burning may be beneficial, as the CFR natural vegetation is a fire-driven community.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Taksonomiese diversiteit en diversiteit van spesies-interaksie netwerke ondervind beide afnames as gevolg van landboukundige intensifikasie op habitat en landskap skaal. Om die neiging terug te swaai, is ’n sleutel bewaringsaangeleentheid, veral vir belangrike funksionele groepe soos blom-besoekende insekte en die netwerke waarbinne hulle op mekaar inwerk. Dit is van groot kommer in streke met hoë bewaringsprioriteite soos in die Kaapse Floristiese Streek (KFS), bekend vir sy hoë vlak van plant- en dierendemisme en buitengewone spesies kentering. ’n Holistiese benadering tot bewaring van landboukundige landskappe behels beide die bewaring van natuurlike land en natuurlewe-vriendelike bestuur van die plaasgrond om bewaringsdoelwitte te bereik. Die waarde van hierdie ekstensiewe bestuursbenaderings moet nog volledig bepaal word, veral in meerjarige sisteme soos wingerde. Ek het die uitwerkings van wingerdbestuur en landskapsamehang op spesiesrykheid en volopheid van blombesoekende insekte en hulle spesies interaksie netwerke ondersoek. Moontlike takson-spesifieke uitwerkings is nagegaan. Ek het ook ondersoek ingestel of wingerde onder organiese en gebruiklike bestuur ooreenstemmende insek-blom interaksie netwerke met wingerde met verskillende bestuurspraktyke in patroon van spesies kentering gewissel het. Ek het blom-besoekende insekte en hulle interaksies in organiese en konvensionele wingerde, asook in natuurlike verwysingsgebiede gemonster. Insluiting van natuurlike verwysingsgebiede het my in staat gestel om bestuursvoorstelle vir gebiede van natuurlike plantegroei in KFS landboulandskappe voor te stel. Statistiese modelle toon takson-spesifieke voordeel van organiese plaasbestuur en van die landskap (afstand van natuurlike habitat) self. Daar was voordeel vir bobbejaankewers (Scarabaeidae), maar nie vir bye (Apidae) nie. Organiese wingerde het ’n groter getal insek-blom interaksies as konvensionele wingerde gehad, maar wingerde onder beide tipes van bestuur was soortgelyk in terme van ander belangrike netwerk aanduiders. Netwerke van wingerde was egter meer geklomp dan natuurlike gebiede wat aandui dat hulle potensieel meer stabiel betreffende versteuring en lukrake uitsterwings is. Multivariate verspreidingstoetse het aangetoon dat insek-blom interaksie netwerke by beide organiese en konvensionele wingerde oor landskappe nie eenvormig was nie. Ek het ook bevind deur aanvullende verdeling dat organiese en konvensionele wingerde gelykwaardig was in terme van spesies kentering van bye en blomplante. Die bevindings van hierdie studie verskaf heuristise waarde tot huidige debatte oor die waarde van wingerdhabitatte vir insekbewaring. Beide organies en konvensionele wingerde wat volhoubare bestuur van die nie-gewas plantegroei binne wingerdrye bevorder, is moontlike oplossings vir die bewaring van blom-besoekende insekte en hulle wisselwerkings. Bykomend moet aandag gegee word aan die kwaliteit en verbindings van en tussen natuurlike habitat gebiede binne die KFS landboulandskap. Plekspesifieke (plaaslike) bestuur en bepaling van die waarde van hierdie landskapelemente is belangrik. Bestuursbenaderings, soos noukeurig beheerde brand, mag voordelig wees aangesien die KFS natuurlike plantegroei ’n vuurgedrewe gemeenskap is.af_ZA
dc.format.extent155 p. : ill., maps
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectCape floristic regionen_ZA
dc.subjectBiological diversity -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectFlower-visiting insects -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectSpecies interaction networks -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectVineyards -- Management -- Environmental aspects -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectHabitat conservation -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertations -- Conservation ecology and entomologyen_ZA
dc.subjectTheses -- Conservation ecology and entomologyen_ZA
dc.titleEffects of vineyard management and landscape context on taxonomic diversity and interaction networks of flower-visiting insects in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspoten_ZA
dc.typeThesis
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch University


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