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dc.contributor.advisorKhondowe, Oswellen_ZA
dc.contributor.advisorBell, Janeten_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSnyders, Olivia Gayleen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. Nursing Science.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2011-11-22T13:59:19Zen_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2011-12-05T13:13:35Z
dc.date.available2011-11-22T13:59:19Zen_ZA
dc.date.available2011-12-05T13:13:35Z
dc.date.issued2011-12en_ZA
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17943en_ZA
dc.descriptionThesis (MCur)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is a hospital acquired infection, not present or incubating at the time of admission and developing in patients during the process of care within the hospital setting. Between nine and twenty-seven percent of patients who are mechanically ventilated will develop ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mortality rates for ventilated patients who develop ventilator-associated pneumonia are estimated to be between 33-50%. The Institute for Healthcare Improvements (IHI) in 2006 recommended the use of ‘care bundles’ to reduce VAP but no statistically significant decline has been noted. Despite the completion of an extensive literature search for purposes of this review, no statistical data on nosocomial infections or nosocomial pneumonia relevant to South Africa was found. Mechanical ventilation, a support therapy used in approximately one third of patients, significantly increases the patient’s risk of developing this nosocomial pneumonia. Critically ill patients are by virtue of their critical illness more prone to the development of infections, especially ventilator-associated pneumonia. Consistent evidence suggests that oropharyngeal colonization can be associated with the development of VAP. Studies focusing on standard oral care, with or without the concurrent use of chlorhexidine, have not provided sufficient evidence for the use of chlorhexidine in VAP prevention. Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent, which when tested, proved to reduce total respiratory tract infections by up to 69% (DeRiso et al, 1996:1558). Objective: The aim of this study was to systematically appraise and review evidence on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in adult patients. The secondary aim was to systematically summarize evidence on the use of chlorhexidine in reducing mortality. Methodology: An extensive literature search of studies published in English was undertaken. Electronic databases searched were CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE. Reference lists of articles, textbooks and conference summaries were examined. Literature searches were conducted using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). These included: Ventilator-associated pneumonia, chlorhexidine, VAP and oral care. Eight randomized controlled trials, investigating the efficacy of Chlorhexidine in ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention in adults met the inclusion criteria. The effect measure of choice was Risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous data using the random effects (Mantel-Haenszel) model; (p=value of 0.05). Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic and I². Results: Eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. Pooled risk ratio for the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 0.64 (95% CI; 0.44-0.91; p =0.18). Treatment with chlorhexidine decreased the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia by 36%. There was no evidence of Chlorhexidine reducing mortality. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine is a cost effective safe treatment in the prevention of VAP. The use of 2% chlorhexidine may be more effective in reducing the incidence of VAP. No studies were found conducted in developing countries. More rigorously designed trials using 2% chlorhexidine are recommended.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Agtergrond Ventilator-Geassosieerde Longontsteking (VAP) is 'n hospitaal verkry infeksie, nie teenwoordig met toelating nie. Ventilator-geassosieerde longontsteking word ontwikkel in pasiënte tydens die proses van sorg in die hospitaal. Tussen nege en sewe en twintig persent van pasiënte wat meganies geventileer word kry ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie. Sterftesyfers vir geventileerde pasiënte wat ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie ontwikkel is na raming tussen 33- 50%. Die Institute for Healthcare Improvements (IHI) het in 2006 die gebruik van 'sorg bundels' aanbeveel om VAP te verminder, maar geen statisties beduidende daling is aangeteken nie. Ten spyte van 'n uitgebreide literatuur soek, is geen statistiese data op nosokomiale infeksies of nosokomiale longontsteking toepaslik tot Suid-Afrika gevind nie. Meganiese ventilasie, 'n ondersteuningsterapie wat gebruik word in ongeveer een derde van die pasiënte, verhoog aansienlik die pasiënt se risiko vir die ontwikkeling van hierdie nosokomiale longontsteking. Kritiek siek pasiënte is op gronde van hul kritieke toestand meer geneig tot die ontwikkeling van infeksies, veral ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie. Konsekwente bewyse dui daarop dat orofaringeale kolonisasie kan met die ontwikkeling van VAP geassosieer word. Studies wat fokus op standaard mond sorg, met of sonder die gelyktydige gebruik van chlorhexidine, het nie voldoende bewyse vir die gebruik van chlorhexidine in VAP voorkoming nie. Chlorhexidine is 'n antiseptiese agent, wat wanneer in een verewekansigde gekontroleerde studies (VGS) getoets was die totale respiratoriese kanaal infeksies verminder deur tot 69%. Doel: Die doel van hierdie sistematiese literatuuroorsig was om stelselmatig te evalueer en bewyse oor die effektiwiteit van chlorhexidine in die vermindering en voorkoms van ventilatorgeassosieerde pneumonie in volwasse pasiënte te hersien. Die sekondêre doel was om stelselmatig bewyse op te som op die gebruik van chlorhexidine in die vermindering van sterfte. Metodiek: 'n Uitgebreide literatuursoektog van studies wat in Engels gepubliseer is was onderneem. CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE en MEDLINE was deursoek. Naslaanlyste van artikels, handboeke en konferensie opsommings is ondersoek. Die literatuur soektog is uitgevoer met behulp van Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Dit sluit in: ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie, chlorhexidine, VAP en mond sorg. Agt verewekansigde gekontroleerde studies (VGS), wat die doeltreffendheid van Chlorhexidine in ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie voorkoming in volwassenes ondersoek, was ingesluit vir hierdie studie. Die effek mate van keuse was risiko ratio (RR) met 95% vertrouensintervalle met behulp van die ewekansige effekte (Mantel-Haenszel) model; (p = 0.05). Heterogeniteit is bepaal deur gebruik te maak van die Cochrane Q- statistiek en I². Hoof resultate: Agt verewekansigde gekontroleerde studies (VGS) het die insluiting kriteria vir hierdie oorsig gepas. Gepoelde risiko ratio vir die voorkoms van ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie: Risiko Ratio (RR) was 0.64 (95% CI; 0.44-0.91; p=0.18). Gevolgtrekkings: Behandeling met chlorhexidine het die risiko van ventilator-geassosieerde pneumonie met 36% gedaal. Daar was geen bewyse van Chlorhexidine op die vermindering van mortaliteit nie. Chlorhexidine is 'n koste-effektiewe veilige behandeling in die voorkoming van VAP. Die gebruik van 2% chlorhexidine kan moontlik meer effektief wees in die vermindering van die voorkoms van VAP. Meer streng ontwerp studies met 2% chlorhexidine word aanbeveel.af
dc.format.extent65 p.
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectPneumoniaen_ZA
dc.subjectChlorhexidineen_ZA
dc.subjectVentilator associated pneumoniaen_ZA
dc.subjectOral careen_ZA
dc.subjectDissertations -- Nursingen_ZA
dc.subjectTheses -- Nursingen_ZA
dc.titleChlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator associated pneumonia : a systematic reviewen_ZA
dc.typeThesis
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch University


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