The sustainability and employment creation potential of bivalve mariculture: A case study of mussel and oyster farms in Saldanha Bay

Thesis

Olivier, David William (2011-12)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study addresses the sustainable development and employment creation potential of bivalve mariculture with reference to the case of Saldanha. The first section of the study looks at various theoretical perspectives relating to sustainable development. The development of modernist theory is presented, as are its shortcomings. The People-Centred Development theory is presented as an alternative theoretical perspective. This theory is relevant to the present study because it prioritises the participation of local individuals in the development process, rather than prioritising the increase of capital gain. One of the development approaches within people-centred development is the Learning Process Approach. The learning process approach provides a development model through which people-centred development can take place. The study then focuses on empirical cases. The development of four mariculture case studies from different countries and farming different organisms is then considered. The development process of these case studies is used to draw lessons on what factors affect the sustainable development of a mariculture sector. It is shown that five key factors play a role in the sustainable development of each of the four cases. The five factors are the state, the market, funding, the environment and the local community. These five factors provide a typology with which to measure the potential for the sustainable development of the bivalve mariculture sector in Saldanha. Literature on Saldanha is then reviewed, giving a background to rising unemployment in Saldanha and the need to consider the expansion of alternative sectors. This is followed by presenting the methods and results of empirical research involving the collection of primary data in Saldanha. The research methods used in conducting empirical research in Saldanha are presented. This research elicited data on bivalve mariculture employees and bivalve mariculture directors in Saldanha as well as state representatives. The key findings of this study are that the restrictive state policies on mariculture and a lack of funding are the primary limitations to the sector‟s expansion. The sector has the potential to expand by a factor of four, providing employment for over 200 households in Saldanha.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie ondersoek fokus op die volhoubare ontwikkeling en werkskeppingspotensiaal van tweekleppige marikultuur met verwysing na die geval van Saldanha. Die eerste gedeelte van die ondersoek handel oor verskillende teoretiese perspektiewe met betrekking tot volhoubare ontwikkeling. Die ontwikkeling van modernistiese teorie word aangebied, tesame met sy tekortkominge. Die Mens-Gesentreerde Ontwikkelingsraamwerk word as 'n alternatiewe teoretiese perspektief aangebied. Die mens-gesentreerde ontwikkelingsraamwerk is relevant tot die huidige ondersoek omdat dit die deelname van plaaslike individue in die ontwikkelingproses, eerder as die verhoging van kapitaalwins, vooropstel. Een van die ontwikkelingsbenaderings binne mens-gesentreerde ontwikkeling is die Leerproses Benadering. Die leerproses benadering bied 'n ontwikkelingsmodel waardeur mens-gesentreerde ontwikkeling kan plaasvind. Die leerproses benadering word dan gebruik om die ontwikkeling van ander marikultuur gevalleondersoeke te bespreek. Die tweede deel van die huidige ondersoek beskou die ontwikkeling van vier marikultuur gevalleondersoeke uit verskillende lande wat met verskillende organismes boer. Die ontwikkeling van hierdie gevalleondersoeke is gebruik om lesse op te stel oor watter faktore 'n invloed op die ontwikkeling en volhoubaarheid van 'n marikultuursektor het. Dit is getoon dat die vyf belangrikste faktore wat 'n rol in die volhoubaarheid en uitbreidingspotensiaal van elk van die gevalle gespeel het die staat, die mark, finansiering, die omgewing en die plaaslike gemeenskap behels. Hierdie vyf faktore is gebruik as 'n tipologie om die volhoubaarheid en uitbreidingspotensiaal van die tweekleppige marikultuursektor in Saldanha te meet. Die geval van Saldanha word eerstens in die literatuur aangebied vir 'n agtergrond oor stygende werkloosheid in Saldanha en die noodsaaklikheid om die uitbreiding van alternatiewe sektore te oorweeg. Derdens is primêre navorsing oor Saldanha se tweekleppige marikultuursektor onderneem. Data is versamel vanaf werknemers, direkteure en staatsverteenwoordigers. Die belangrikste bevindings van hierdie ondersoek is dat die beperkende staatsbeleid oor marikultuur en 'n gebrek aan fondse die primêre beperkings op die uitbreiding van die sektor is. Die sektor het die potensiaal om met 'n faktor van vier uit te brei. Teen hierdie grootte sal meer as 200 huishoudings in Saldanha 'n inkomste hê.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17914
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