Selection of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for horses based on in vitro and in vivo studies

Botha, Marlie (2011-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2011.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The equine gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) is a relatively unexplored niche concerning the presence of natural microbiota. Studies have shown that disruption of the microbial population naturally present in the GIT leads to the onset of several forms of gastro-intestinal disorders. To maintain a balanced microbiota, probiotic bacteria need to be administered at specific levels. Beneficial microorganisms assist with digestion of the feed, absorption of nutrients from the GIT, strengthens the immune system and improves the animal‟s growth. Various combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been administered to horses, but have failed to benefit the host in any of the latter criteria. The screening for alternative strains with probiotic properties is thus necessary. Two strains (Lactobacillus equigenerosi Le1 and Lactobacillus reuteri Lr1) were originally isolated from horse faeces. Lactobacillus plantarum 423 and Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA, both bacteriocin-producing strains, were isolated from sorghum beer and soy beans, respectively. All four strains survived growth at acidic conditions (pH 3) and the presence of 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% (w/v) bile salts. L. reuteri Lr1 was the most resistant to these conditions. All strains adhered to buccal (cheek) epithelium cells sampled from horses. L. equigenerosi Le1 and E. mundtii ST4SA, however, invaded the cells, but without visible signs of disrupting the cells. None of the strains contained genes encoding adhesion to collagen (Ace), resistance to vancomycin A, B and C, or, production of aggregation substance (AS), cytolysin (Cyl) and, non-cytolysin (β hemolysin III), suggesting that they are non-virulent. Of all strains, L. equigenerosi Le1 competed the best with Clostridium sp. C6 for adherence to epithelial cells. L. equigenerosi Le1 and L. reuteri Lr1, showed the highest level of co-aggregation with Clostridium sp. C6. When the four strains were administered to horses over a period of 10 days, L. reuteri Lr1 was retained the longest (8 days) in the GIT. The numbers of viable cells of Clostridium spp. and Salmonella spp. remained constant during administration of the four strains. Blood analyses showed no negative effects from administering the strains. Total white blood cell counts remained unchanged. However, a small but tentative increase in neutrophil and eosinophil cell numbers has been recorded, suggesting that the LAB may have elicited a mild, transient, intolerance reaction. The glucose, lactate and urea levels decreased during administration with the four LAB strains.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die spysverteringstelsel (SVS) van die perd is 'n relatief onbekende nis wat die voorkoms van natuurlike mikrobiota betref. Studies het getoon dat versteuring van die natuurlike mikrobiese populasie in die SVS aanleiding kan gee tot die ontwikkeling van menige vorms van gastro-intestinale ongesteldhede. Om 'n gebalanseerde mikrobiota te verseker, moet probiotiese bakterieë teen 'n spesifieke vlak toegedien word. Voordelige mikroorganismes bevorder vertering en absorpsie van nutriënte vanaf die SVS, versterk die immuunsisteem en bevorder die groei van die dier. Verskeie kombinasies van melksuurbakterieë is reeds aan perde toegedien, maar sonder ooglopende voordele vir die dier. Die soeke na alternatiewe stamme met probiotiese eienskappe is dus noodsaaklik. Twee melksuurbakterieë (Lactobacillus equigenerosi Le1 en Lactobacillus reuteri Lr1) is oorspronklik uit perdemis geïsoleer. Lactobacillus plantarum 423 en Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA, beide bakteriosienproduserende stamme, is afsonderlik van sorghumbier en sojabone geïsoleer. Al vier spesies groei by lae pH (pH 3) en in die teenwoordigheid van 0.5%, 1.0% en 1.5% (m/v) galsoute. L. reuteri Lr1 is die mees bestand onder hierdie toestande. Al vier stamme het aan wang epiteelselle van perde geheg. L. equigenerosi Le1 en E. mundtii ST4SA het egter die epiteelselle binnegedring, maar sonder opsigtelike vernietiging van die selle. Nie een van die stamme besit gene wat kodeer vir aanhegting aan kollageen (Ace), bestandheid teen vankomisien A, B en C, of produksie van, sel-aggregasie (AS), sitolisien (Cyl) en nie-sitolisien (β-hemolisien III), wat daarop dui dat hulle nie-virulent is. Van al die stamme het L. equigenerosi Le1 die beste met Clostridium sp. C6 vir aanhegting aan epiteelselle gekompeteer. L. equigenerosi Le1 en L. reuteri Lr1, het die beste vlak van ko-aggregasie met Clostridium sp. C6 getoon. Met die toediening van 'n kombinasie van die vier stamme aan die perde oor 'n periode van 10 dae, het L. reuteri Lr1 die langste retensie (8 dae) in die SVS getoon. Die aantal lewende selle van Clostridium spp. en Salmonella spp. het konstant gebly tydens toediening van die vier stamme. Toediening van die vier stamme het geen negatiewe effek getoon met resultate verkry van bloed analises nie. Die totale witbloed seltellings het onveranderd gebly. 'n Klein, maar tentatiewe, toename in neutrofiel- en eosinofiel selgetalle is waargeneem, wat daarop dui dat die melksuurbakterieë 'n geringe allergiese reaksie teweeggebring het. Die glukose, laktaat en ureum vlakke het gedaal tydens die toediening van die vier melksuurbakterie stamme.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/17846
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