Profiling male apparel consumers : demographic characteristics, lifestyle, shopping orientation, patronage behaviour and shopping mall behaviour

Zietsman, Lucille (2006-04)

Thesis (MVerbruikerswet)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The retail environment in South Africa is dynamic and complex. The apparel retailing industry functions within an emergent economic milieu, and the consumers it targets are exposed to various factors that influence their shopping behaviour. Some of these factors are shopping orientation, patronage behaviour, lifestyle, and shopping mall behaviour. Male apparel shopping behaviour can therefore be regarded as a complex phenomenon. The aim of this study was to identify those factors that influence male apparel shopping behaviour and to determine whether distinct clusters of male apparel shoppers could be identified. Theoretical models in the study discipline of Consumer Behaviour were investigated. The information was synthesised into an expanded conceptual model of variables influencing male apparel shopping behaviour. The variables that are relevant to this study, include demographic characteristics, lifestyle, shopping orientation, patronage behaviour, and shopping mall behaviour. Information for this exploratory study was generated by means of a store-intercept interview. The questionnaire was based on previous research. Trained fieldworkers conducted the interviews with 297 male apparel shoppers. Eight lifestyle components were identified and labelled as follows: Apparel oriented lifestyle; Performing arts defined lifestyle; Media oriented lifestyle; Socialising lifestyle; Sport oriented lifestyle; Published information oriented lifestyle; Relaxing oriented lifestyle as well as Family/community oriented lifestyle. The three shopping orientation components identified were labelled Local store patronage; Credit prone, Brand conscious and fashion innovating; as well as Shopping self-confidence and enjoyment. Four cluster profiles of male apparel shoppers were formed by means of cluster analysis, according to the eight lifestyles components and three shopping orientation components, as well as the 11 patronage behaviour items. Demographic characteristics describing each cluster profile completed the typology of the four male apparel shopper groups. Cluster 1 was the largest (38%) and was labelled Traditionalists. Its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 4. Cluster 2 was labelled Shopping enthusiasts, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 3; they comprised 19% of the total group. Cluster 3 was the second largest (30%) cluster and was identified as Dynamics, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 3 and 4. Cluster 4 (13%) was labelled as Laggards, and its members were classified under Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 2. It was evident that the male apparel market is not homogeneous and that it could be clustered into distinct segments of male apparel shoppers with similar characteristics. The following can be regarded as the main implications for retailers, shopping mall management, and marketers: • In order to make retailers’ marketing plan more focused and strategic, marketers could make use of the proposed expanded conceptual model that provides them with an overall view of variables influencing male apparel shopping behaviour within a shopping mall environment. The identified profiles of male apparel shoppers could serve as point of departure when composing marketing strategies. • Advertising and promotional campaigns must be versatile in order to cater for the identified cluster profiles of male apparel consumers. • Male apparel consumers behave differently within different retail stores and shopping malls. Retailers and shopping mall management should therefore attempt to understand their consumers’ needs, wants and, more importantly, prerequisites for patronising their stores and/or shopping malls. South African male apparel consumers should not be considered a homogenous group. Further research should be done across various cultural and ethnic groups, as well as across different gender and age groups. This study focused only on a few concepts pertaining to male apparel shoppers aged 20-35. As, a result, further research is needed to assess the impact of these variables on a wider spectrum of apparel consumers, such as males outside this age demarcation, females or teenagers, and mature shoppers. Recommendations for future research were made which can guide and encourage further scientific research in the field of apparel shopping behaviour.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika beskik oor ‘n dinamiese en komplekse kleinhandelomgewing. Die klerekleinhandelindustrie funksioneer binne ‘n ontwikkelende ekonomiese milieu, en ‘n verskeidenheid faktore beinvloed die teikenverbruikers se koopgedrag. Sommige van die faktore is koop-oriëntasie, winkelvoorkeurgedrag, lewenstyl en winkelsentrumgedrag. Mansklerekoopgedrag kan dus as a komplekse verskynsel beskou word. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die veranderlikes wat mansklerekoopgedrag beïnvloed te identifiseer, en om te bepaal of die onderskeibare groepe van mansklereverbruikers geïdentifiseer kan word. Teoretiese modelle in die studieveld van Verbruikergedrag is bestudeer. Die inligting is verfyn en verder ontwikkel tot ‘n omvattende konseptuele model van veranderlikes wat mansklerekoopgedrag beïnvloed. Die veranderlikes relevant vir hierdie studie sluit in: die demografiese eienskappe, lewenstyl, kooporiëntasie, winkelvoorkeurgedrag, asook winkelsentrumgedrag. Data vir hierdie verkennende studie is verkry deur respondente in winkels te nader vir ‘n onderhoud (store intercept interview). Die vraelys is op vorige navorsing gebaseer. Opgeleide veldwerkers het 297 onderhoude gevoer met mansklereverbruikers. Agt lewenstylkomponente is geïdentifiseer en soos volg benoem: Klere-georiënteerde lewenstyl; Uitvoerende kunste-georënteerde lewenstyl; Mediageoriënteerde lewenstyl; Sosialiserings-georiënteerde lewenstyl; Sport-georiënteerde lewenstyl; Gepubiseerde informasie-georiënteerde lewenstyl; Ontspannings-georiënteerde lewenstyl asook Familie/gemeenskaps-georiënteerde lewenstyl. Die drie kooporiëntasie-komponente was benoem as plaaslike winkelvoorkeuroriëntasie; krediet-geneigdheid, handelsmerk en mode-innoverende oriëntasie, asook aankoop-selfvertroue en genot-oriëntasie. Vier groepe profiele van mansklereverbruikers is deur middel van trosanalise gevorm. Die trosanalise is gedoen op grond van die agt lewenstylkomponente, die drie kooporiëntasie komponente asook die 11 winkelvoorkeurgedrag-items. Die tipering van die vier groepe is afgerond deur die demografiese eienskappe: Groep 1 was die grootste (38%) en is Traditionalists genoem, en is geklassifiseer as Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 4. Groep 2 is Shopping enthusiasts genoem en maak 19% van die totale groep uit. Hulle is geklassifiseer as Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 3. Groep 3 was die tweede grootste (30%) groep en is Dynamics genoem, en is geklassifiseer as Consumer Scope Lifestyle Levels 3 en 4. Groep 4 (13%) is Laggards genoem en geklassifiseer as Consumer Scope Lifestyle Level 2. Dit is dus duidelik dat die mansklere-aankopersmark nie homogeen is nie en dat hulle in onderskeibare segmente van mansklere-aankopers met ooreenkomstige eienskappe gegroepeer kan word. Die volgende kan beskou word as die belangrikste implikasies vir kleinhandelaars, winkelsentrumbestuur en bemarkers: • Om kleinhandelaars se bemarkingsplan ‘n meer gefokusde en strategiese wending te gee, kan hulle gebruik maak van die voorgestelde uitgebreide konseptuele model wat hul van ‘n oorsig voorsien oor die veranderlikes wat mansklere-aankoopgedrag binne ‘n winkelsentrumomgewing beïnvloed. Die geïdentifiseerde profiele van mansklere-aankopers kan as vertrekpunt dien wanneer bemarkingstrategieë saamgestel word. • Advertensie- en promosieveldtogte moet veelsydig wees om vir die geïdentifiseerde groepe van mansklereverbruikers of -aankopers te voorsien. • Mansklereverbruikers toon verskillende soorte gedrag in verskillende kleinhandelwinkels en winkelsentrums. Kleinhandelaars en winkelsentrumbestuur moet ‘n poging aanwend om hul verbruikers se behoeftes en begeertes, maar bowenal in hul voorkeurgedrag vir winkels/winkelsentrums, te voorsien. Suid-Afrikaanse mansklereverbruikers moet nie as ‘n homogene groep beskou word nie. Verdere navorsing moet oor verskeie kulturele en etniese groepe heen, asook oor verskillende geslags- en ouderdomsgroepe, gedoen word. Hierdie studie fokus alleenlik op ‘n paar konsepte wat betrekking het op mansklereverbruikers tussen 20 en 35 jaar. Gevolglik word verdere navorsing benodig om die impak van hierdie veranderlikes op ‘n wyer spektrum van verbruikers te beraam, byvoorbeeld mans buite die ouderdomsperk, vrouens, tienderjariges, en bejaarde verbruikers. Aanbevelings vir toekomstige navorsing word gemaak wat verdere wetenskaplike navorsing in die studieveld van klereaankoopgedrag kan rig en aanmoedig.

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