Urinary tract infection associated with conditions causing urinary tract obstruction and stasis, excluding urolithiasis and neuropathic bladder
Article in Press
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with conditions causing urinary tract obstruction and stasis, excluding urolithiasis and neuropathic bladder dysfunction. Methods: An electronic literature search was performed using the key words urinary tract infection (UTI),benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), hydronephrosis, obstruction, reflux, diverticulum, urethra, and stricture. In total, 520 abstracts were reviewed, 210 articles were studied in detail, and 36 were included as references. Results: It is one of the axioms of Urological practice that urinary tract obstruction and stasis predispose to UTI. Experimental studies indicate that, whereas transurethral inoculates of bacteria are rapidly eliminated from the normal bladder, urethral obstruction leads to cystitis, pyelonephritis, and bacteremia. BPH is, next to urolithiasis, the most common cause of urinary tract obstruction predisposing to UTI. Urethral stricture remains a common cause of UTI in many parts of the world. Urinary stasis in diverticula of the urethra or bladder predisposes to UTI. Experimental studies have shown that, whereas the normal kidney is relatively resistant to infection by organisms injected intravenously, ureteric obstruction predisposes to pyelonephritis. It also causes renal dysfunction which impairs the excretion of antibiotics in the urine, making eradication of bacteria difficult. Conclusions: In patients with UTI and urinary tract obstruction, targeted antibiotic treatment according to urine culture should be complemented with urgent drainage (bladder catheterization, percutaneous nephrostomy or ureteric stenting) followed by definitive surgery to remove the cause of obstruction or stasis once infection is under control. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.